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Full text of "Paint & colour mixing, a practical handbook : for painters, decorators, artists and all who have to mix colours, containing 287 samples of actual oil- and water-paints and water-colours of various colours, including the principal graining grounds, and upwards of 600 different colour mixtures, with instructions on colour and paint mixing generally, testing colours, etc., etc. with thirteen coloured plates"

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Gold Medals : Paris, 1878 and 1900. 



Try our New Dry Washable Distemper " PHASANTITE." 



Mam 
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ZINGESSOL 



IS THE 



MOST PERFECT 



OP ALL THE 



TEMPERA PAINTS 



(Or Washable Distempers), 




AND IS MANUFACTUEED BY 



J. B. ORR, 

WIDNES, 

LANCASHIRE. 



^£y 



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CHURCH'S . . 

Alabastine 



Ma 
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Being used, all troublesome and expensive 
washing off of old distemper coats is 
avoided, as each Alabastine coat forms 
a permanent foundation for the follow- 
ing one ; it hardens with age on the wall ; 
distemper decays. 

A Dry 

Powder 

ready for use 
by adding: . 
cold water 



Alabastine 
Alabastine 

Alabastine 

Alabastine 



Made in 27 
Beautiful Tints, 
and White. 



Should be used on the interiors of all "Wood lined Structures, 
as, unlike oil paint, it iy fire resisting. 

Is a Patent Wall and Ceiling Coating, giving superior result 
to that obtained by the use of distemper or oil paint, at a cost 
about equal to that of distemper. 

A&_ iised in Private Dwellings is much appreciated as a 
substitute for wall paper, being more healthful, artistic, and 
economical. It is an admirable disinfectant. 

Undoubtedly the best filling up material. It will not swell, 
crack, or scale, and cuts down in quarter the time of other 
fillers. Is pure white. 



Send for Tint Cards, also 1/6 for Sample sib. Packet to . . 

Alabastine So,, gritish, 

Manufacturers of Jelstone Dry Distemper 
and Alabastine Opalia for Relief "Work, 

Church St., South Lambeth, London, S.W. 



Ctd. 



XT o xT^°''t.^^' 3'' 'he prominent Dealers in Paint in the United Kingdom. 
N.B.— New Pamphlet just published, " Stippling Walls," post free on receipt 



of card. 



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PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



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Londjn: 

The Robinson Printing Co., Ltd., 

I, Lombard Court, E.G. 

Works: Brighton. 



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COLOURS. 


Pure. 


With 

15 Parts 

White Lead. 


With 

30 Parts 
White Lead. 

1 


Crimson Madder, F 2. 

Permanent. 


■ 


■ 


■ 


Emerald Tint, W. 


■ 


■ 


1 


HoMERTON Red. 

Self Colour, Permanent. 


■ 


■ 


■ 


Deep Japan Brown. 

Permanent. 




■ 


■ 


Golden Ochre, W. 


■ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


^ 


PoMPEiAN Red. 

Permanent. 


■ 


■ 


{ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


Emerald Tint, S. 


■ 


1 


1 
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HoMERTON Greens. 

Self Colour, Permanent. 


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Paint i^ Colour 

Mixing 



A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK 

FOR PAINTERS, DECORATORS, ARTISTS, AND ALL WHO HAVE 

TO MIX COLOURS, 

CONTAINING 287 SAMPLES OF ACTUAL OIL- AND WATER-PAINTS AND 
WATER-COLOURS OF VARIOUS COLOURS, INCLUDING THE PRINCIPAL 
GRAINING GROUNDS, AND UPWARDS OF 600 DIFFERENT COLOUR MIXTURES, 
WITH INSTRUCTIONS ON COLOUR AND PAINT MIXING GENERALLY,' 

TESTING COLOURS, ETC., ETC. 

With Thirteen Coloured Plates. 



BY 



ARTHUR SEYMOUR JENNINGS, 

Editor of" The Decorator," Author of" Wall Papers and Wall Coverings," ''Practical Solid 

Geometry" etc., etc. Honorary Consultative Examiner in Painters' and Decorators'" 

WorA to the City and Guilds of London Institute. Mevtber of the 

International Society for Testing Materials. 



Cf 



n.vi' 



THIRD EDITION. 

RE-WRITTEN AND MUCH ENLARGED. 



* ^ -31 3 -9 3 



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E. & F. N., SPON, Ltd., 57, IIAYMARKET, S.W. 

t ^ .' ';: :; We;wi,\^r*[c i^",« ^•^^ 
SPON & CHAMBERLAIN, 123, LIBERTY STREET. 

1906. 



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PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. 



Another edition of this book being called for, the 
Author has taken the opportunity of adding several 
chapters dealing with subjects not previously included. 
The most important of these are " Mixing Paints and 
Colours on the Manufacturing Scale," and " Artists' 
Water Colours and How to Mix Them." 

The latter subject is dealt with at considerable 
length, and a complete list of artists' water colours is 
given, with notes on the origin and properties of each, 
several typical palettes and hints as to the mixtures 
of colours which are used in water colour painting. 

A chapter on "Glazing " has also been given, and 
the whole of the work, and especially the lists of colour 
mixtures, has been garefully revised and considerably 
added to. Another new chapter, " How to Learn to 
Mix and Match Colours" suggests a course of practical 
study and experiment by which the reader may learn 
the subject in a thorough manner. 

Perhaps the most important improvement, how- 
ever, is the increased number of coloured plates. In 
the first edition there were but four ; in this there 
are thirteen, comprising in all 287 different colours, all 
of them being executed in the actual material they 
represent ; that is to say, either oil paint, distemper, 
or artists' water colour. This feature is of importance 
because matches of any colour included in the plates 
may be made by using pigments and following the 
detailed instructions given, while it would be impossi- 
ble if printers' or lithographic inks had been used. 

The Author in the first edition said that he had 
ample justification for the publication of the book in 
the fact that he had during the last twenty years 
received, in his capacity as editor of painters' publica- 
tions, inquiries almost daily for a book giving colour 






VI. 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 



mixtures, with actual samples of colours ; in other 
words, one which would be useful to the man who 
wanted to mix paints, but who had not made a study 
of the subject. 

Two editions, each of two thousand, having been 
sold, it would appear that this view was not a mistaken 
one, and now that an earnest attempt has been made 
to add to the usefulness of the book it is hoped that 
it will interest many who have not purchased the 
earlier editions. 

A critic might object that it is impossible to give 
accurate colour mixtures, because the appearance of 
colour varies according to the light in which it is 
viewed, and also because the result obtained by mixing 
coloured pigments of differf.nt manufacture must vary 
greatly according to the quaUty of those colours. 
AH these objections have been carefully borne in mind 
in the preparation of the contents of this work. It 
has been assumed that the colour mixtures will be 
viewed in an average good light, and it is further 
assumed that the colours employed will not necessarily 
be of the very best quahty, but certainly not those 
which are very inferior. 

It need only be added that every one of the 
mixtures given in this work has again been carefully 
tested with the actual colours. The preparation of 
the lists has been no inconsiderable work. 

The Author cordially invites correspondence,and 
he takes the opportunity of returning thanks to many 
readers, both at home and abroad, who have sent him 
words of appreciation of his work, and also to many 
paint and colour manufacturers who have kindly 
supplied him with their colour cards and lists which 
have been most useful for comparison. 

Arthur S. Jennings. 

62, Barry Road, 

Dulwich, London, S.E. 

December, 1906. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER 1.- 



Paint and Colour Mixing : 
The Composition of a Paint — Pigments 
White — Thinners for Zinc Oxide- 
tine — Special Liquid Driers — Practical Paint Mixing — 
Paint Mixing Machines^ — Paint Straining and Paint 
Strainers 



Introduction. 
—White Lead — Zinc 
-Thinners — Turpen- 



CHAPTER II. 

Colours or Stainers. 
The Nomenclature of Colours— Examples and Variations in 
the Name of the Colours- — Efforts made to Establish a 
Uniform Nomenclature— Colour Synonyms — Economy 
of using Good Colours — Hue, Tint and Shade — Standard- 
ising Colours — Competition . . , . . . 



17 



CHAPTER III. 

How TO Learn to Mix and Match Colours. - 
A Course of Experiments— Reds and How to Mix them— 
Blues — Yellows — Greens — Tints and Shades — Complex 
Colours — A Colour Chart — Matching Colours — Appear- 
ance of Colours and Intensity of Light — Experimenting 
with Distemper . . . . . . . . . . 27 



CHAPTER IV. 

Reds and How to Mix Them. 
The Principal Reds and How they are Produced 



35 



CHAPTER V. 

Blues and How to Mix Them. 
The Principal Blues and How they are Produced 



47 



CHAPTER VI. 

Yellows and How to Mix Them. 
How to Mix the Principal Yellows 



54 




Vlll. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VII. 

1 

Greens and How to Mix Them. 
The Principal Greens and How they are Produced 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Browns and How to Mix Them. 
Vandyke Brown— Umber— Mixing Browns— The Principal 
Browns and How to Mix Them 



64 



74 



CHAPTER IX. 

Greys and Grays. 
The Difference between Greys and Grays-Experiments with 
Blacks— Difference in Tone of Certain Blacks-Colour 
Mixtures for Various Greys and Grays .. •• ^6 



CHAPTER X. 

Whites and Blacks. 
The Principal Whites and Blacks Used by Painters 

CHAPTER XI. 
Black Japan in Colour Mixing. 
Colours that may be Mixed from Black Japan . . 



88 



93 



CHAPTER XII. 
Glazing. 
Glazing Defined— Reds— Purphsh Finish- 
and Greens- 



-Peacock Blues 



-Scumbling— Matsine 



96 



CHAPTER XIII. 
Graining Grounds and Graining Colours. 
How to Mix the Principal Graining Grounds and Graining 
Colours . . 



100 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Mixing Paints and Colours on the Manufacturing 

Scale. 
Raw Materials used in Paint Grinding— Barytes— Whiting 
or Plaster of Paris— Gypsum or Terra Alba— China 
Qav— Yellow Pigments— Black Pigments— Blue Pig- 
ments—Green Pigments— Table of Quantity of Lmseed 
Oil required in Grinding Pigments— Stiff Paints— 
Machinery and Plant used m Paint Grinding— Prepared 
Paints— Formute for Ready Mixed Paints— Skeleton 
Cost Sheet . . 



104 



CONTENTS. 



IX. 



CHAPTER XV. 

PAGE. 

Water Paints, Distempers, Etc. 
The Increase in the Use of Water Paints — The Advantages — 
CoveringCapacity — Painting and Varnishing over Water 
Paints — Distemper .. .. .. ..124 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Artists' Water Colours and How to Mix Them. 
PreUminary Remarks — Restricted Palettes — Palettes of 
Celebrated Artists — Chart of Water Colours — How to 
Imitate Water Colours — Suggestions for Painters in 
Water Colours — -Colours for Autumnal Tints — -Banks, 
Earthy — Bracken — -Branches of Trees — Backgrounds — 
Clouds and Distances — Clouds (stormy) — -Flowers and 
Fruit — Foliage, Grass and Herbage — Foregrounds — 
Grass — Grays, Warm and Cold — Ivy — Leaves and 
Stems of Flowers — Mountains — Rivers — Roads — Sea 
— Shadows — -Ship — Skies— Stone Walls — Sunset and 
Sunrise — Trees 



132 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Testing Colours. 
Chief Considerations — Purity of Material — Tone — Fineness 
of Grinding — Spreading Capacity — Testing — Chrome 
Green — -Bronze Green — ^Emerald Green — Vermilion — 
Indian and Tuscan Reds — Vermilionettes — Blues — Red 
Lead — Chrome Yellow — Ochre — Blacks— Umbers — 
Siennas. . . . . . . . . . . . 143 

CHAPTER XVIIT. 

Notes on Colour Harmony. 
General Consideration — Colour Blindness — Matching Wall 
Papers — -Contrasting Harmonies — -SuggestionsforColour 
Schemes — For a Red Wall, etc. — Colour Combinations 
for Doors . . . . . . . . ..158 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Proportions of Materials, Notes, Etc. 
Proportions Vary with Conditions of Work — Priming for 
Iron — Painting on Stucco — -PrimingforDeal — Inside and 
Outside Work — ^Table of Materials Required — Eggshell 
Gloss — Oxide of Zinc — Pigments, some Useful Tables — 
Brushes and How they are Made — The Care of Brushes — 
The Tintometer — Coloured Oil Varnishes — Oxides — 
Jelstone . , 

Descriptions of the Coloured Plates 

Index 



165 
178 



-rr:--';-'^ 



THE COLOURED PLATES. 



[Note. — A full description of each plate will be found at the 
end of the book, next to Index (see pages 178 to 185).] 

Plate I. — This shows eight different body colours in common 
use with tints of the same produced by adding i 5 parts 
and 30 parts respectively of white lead, making 24 colours 
in all. 

Plate II. — This shows eight different graining grounds, and 
eight oil colours used in everyday work. Instructions for 
mixine all of them wall be found within. 

Plate III. — This plate gives sixteen different useful colours, 

Plate IV.— This plate gives thirty named colours standardised 
bv ascertaining the popular opinion' of several thousands 
of colour experts as explained within. 

Plate V. — Thirty more colours standardised in the same manner 
as those on Plate TV; 

Plate VI.— Sixteen useful colours in washable distempers, one 
half of each colour being plain and one half varnished. 

Plate VII. — Sixteen useful colours in distemper. 

Plate VIII. — Sixteen examples of non-poisonous distemper 
colours. 

Plate IX. — Forty different tints of distemper produced by 
mixing three primary colours with white in given pro- 
portions. 

Plate X. — Twenty-seven different colours of distemper employed 
in everyday work. 

Plate XI. — Forty specimens of typical water colours used by 
artists in water colour painting. 

Plate XII. — Eight examples of methods of using the speciality- 
known as " Matsine.-' 



Plate XIII. — Eight further examples of Matsine. 



CHAPTER I. 



Paint and Colour Mixing : Introduction, 



The Composition of a Paint. — Clearly the first 
thing to be done before studying the subject of paint 
and colour mixing is to define " paint " and " colour." 
Without attempting to give a hard and fast definition, 
it may be said that a paint consists of any pigment, 
or pigments, such as white lead, tinctured or used 
plain, mixed with linseed oil, and thinned by means 
of turpentine to render it in such a condition that 
it may be readily applied to the surface of wood, 
iron and other work by means of a brush. Paint 
serves the purpose, first of preserving the material 
to which it is applied, and sometimes, but not always, 
a second purpose, namely, that of decoration or 
adding to the beauty of the obj ect to which it is applied. 

The principal pigment used in paint mixing is 
white lead, but there are many others that are also 
employed. Many painters look upon paint as neces- 
sarily consisting of white lead, to which has been added 
sufficient colouring matter to give the desired tint. 
As a matter of fact, white lead may be wholly absent 
from a paint. For example, yellow ochre or sienna 
may each be used by itself. Iron oxide in the shape 
of Indian red, purple brown, or Venetian red, form in 
themselves good paints if the colour is not objection- 
able. Red lead used -by itself is a useful paint. Again, 
in the lighter paints, we sometimes have white lead 
replaced by an admixture of zinc oxide, barytes, 
lithopone, Charlton white, Orr's white, and other 
white pigments. 

The oil used in mixing paint is principally used 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



r. 



to combine or unite together the particles of which 
the pigment is composed. It is also employed to 
give a glossy surface and to bring the material to a 
proper consistency. Turpentine could be used for 
the latter purpose by itself, but the result would 
be what is termed a " flat " surface, or an absence 
of gloss. The turpentine, too, evaporates almost 
wholly. It is generally conceded, among those who 
have given close attention to the subject, that the 
durabihty of a paint depends largely upon the oil 
used ; indeed, it has been likened to the life blood 
of the paint. Recent investigation has shown that 
it depends also and to a very great extent upon the 
fineness of the particles. A perfectly pure, but 
coarsely ground pigment, when made into paint, 
will not last nearly so long as one which is finely 
ground. 

There is not much doubt that the best pigments 
may be replaced with others somewhat inferior without 
so much detriment to the quality of the paint as if 
linseed oil is replaced by some other oil. It is quite 
necessary that pure linseed oil be used in the manu- 
facture of all paints, and although there are one or 
two substitutes on the market which may be employed 
in very cheap work, no attempt should be made to 
execute a really good job unless pure linseed oil is 
used. The purpose of the oil in giving a gloss is 
sometimes assisted by the addition of a small quantity 
of oak varnish. This is a growing custom among 
painters, as the gloss produced is decidedly improved 
by the addition of the varnish, and the work shows up 
well, while the varnish does not in any way detract 
from the durability of the paint, but rather adds to it. 
This practice is employed more on outside than inside 
work, where the execution of the painting requires 
more' care than it does inside, owmg to the severe 
atmospheric conditions, which cause any paint work 
not properly prepared to soon decay. 



^^'mkt 




INTRODUCTION. 



For our present purpose " colour " may be defined 
as a pigment possessing a hue or colour in itself which 
it imparts to the v/hite lead or other white pigment 
with which it is mixed, thus producing a series of 
"tints" according to the proportions employed. It 
is for this reason that colours in painter's parlance 
are frequently called " stainers," although the word 
is not quite correct, as it implies an effect similar 
to that which would be produced by the use of a 
stain or dye. As a matter of fact coloured pigments^ 
when mixed with white ones, do not actually stain, 
but the particles lie side by side and become merged 
into each other when viewed at a little distance. 

In mixing a paint the base, such as white lead, 
having been selected, a colour is mixed with it in 
order to produce the desired hue or tint. Frequently, 
however, a colour is made by the mixture of several 
colours, which are added to the base, or sometimes 
a single colour may be used by itself, or several colours 
without white at all may be employed. 

The colour having been determined, oil, turpentine, 
and driers are then added. The object of the driers 
is that of causing the paint material to dry quickly. 
There are several kinds of driers on the market, but 
the two best known are termed " patent driers," 
which is sold in solid form, and the " liquid driers " or 
" japanners." Whichever is used, the actual quantity 
employed will depend very largely upon the pigment. 
Some pigments, such, for instance, as red lead, may 
be considered in themselves driers, and the addition, 
of any other is unnecessary. Others, like Vandyke 
brown, dry slowly, and much more driers will be 
necessary than is the case with white lead. Further 
on we give some idea of the proportions of materials 
to be used, but it will be understood that no exact 
information on the subject will be possible, for reasons 
that will be explained. It is of the utmost importance 
to remember that an excess of driers is most objection- 




PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



able. It often retards, instead of increasing, the drying- 
quality, it causes cracks and blisters, and above all, 
it proves very destructive to the paint itself. 

The quality of patent driers varies very greatly, 
some of the cheaper grades consisting largely of material 
which possesses no drying properties whatever. Indeed, 
at the present day there is so much patent driers 
on the market that is largely adulterated that the 
author prefers to always use Hquid driers, provided, 
of course, that its good quality has been clearly estab- 
lished. When the latter is used the proportions can 
very readily be ascertained and the danger of using 
an excess is avoided. 

Another effect of using driers in excess is a some- 
what peculiar one, and is worthy of mention here. 
The paint dries hard in rather less than the usual 
time, but after a week or two it gradually becomes 
soft, adhering to the hand or anything placed against 
it. The reason for this is that the paint dries only on 
the surface, owing to the excess of driers, and that the 
soft paint afterwards works through. 

Pigment and Thinners. — It being now clearly 
understood that a paint consists of pigment such as 
white lead, mixed with oil in order to bind the particles 
together, and thinned with turpentine in order to 
render it of a suitable consistency for application by 
means of a brush, we may add a few remarks under 
each of these heads. 

Pigments. — The principal pigments used by the 
painter are, as already stated, white lead, zinc oxide, 
oxide of iron, and the various colours used for tinting 
purposes. White lead is manufactured either by what 
is known as the " old Dutch " process, also known a^ 
the " stack " process, or by one of the many new 
methods which are designed to effect a saving of time. 
Speaking broadly, the old Dutch process yields the best 
lead, although there are one or two exceptions, notably 
Brimsdown lead, which is manufactured by a new 



f 



4^ay}:-*:;t xv?"v"J>i^^^»v^^4i^■>5*»v«*2^^^ 



INTRODUCTION. 



process. It is a beautifully white and fine lead which 
is rapidly gaining great popularity among painters. 

Genuine white lead, i.e., lead which is not adul- 
terated, is always marked on the package, " Genuine 
White Lead." If any proportion of adulterant is 
added, the package is then marked " Reduced White 
Lead," so that the reader need have no hesitancy in 
purchasing lead, because the mark will tell him what 
its quality is. If any merchant or manufacturer sells 
adulterated white lead as pure, he renders himself 
liable to heavy penalties for contravening the pro- 
visions of the " Merchandise Marks' Act," and the 
White Lead Corroders Section of the London Chamber 
of Commerce order prosecutions in cases of the kind 
which come to their knowledge. 

Zinc Oxide has, in recent years, made great 
advances in popularity among painters. Compared 
to white lead, it is as white to yellow. It is indeed 
beautifully white, very fine, and easily worked. The 
whiteness is of importance in mixing paints, as the 
purity of colour is retained, while when mixed with 
lead the yellowish cast to some extent destroys the 
purity of the original colour. The fact that oxide 
of zinc is non-poisonous is a point in its favour of 
very considerable importance. It is claimed that 
painters who take care to wash themselves frequently 
are not hkely to contract lead poisoning. This is 
-doubtless true enough, but as a matter of fact, the 
best of painters are at times careless, while in the 
rush of vv^ork, it is often impossible to take the pre- 
cautions required. 

The most important quaHty of zinc oxide is its 
.extreme durability. Properly mixed it will last, say 
at a moderate estimate, twice as long as lead, especially 
in large cities where the air is impregnated with sulphur 
derived from burning coal. Lead, in such circum- 
stances, turns yellow or black and quickly decays, 
and some places, such as stables, where sulphuretted 



6 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

hydrogen abounds, it is useless to paint with white 
lead, and if zinc is used these disadvantages are 
avoided. 

The practical reader will probably think, when he 
reads the foregoing, that while our remarks are true 
enough so far as they go, yet he will say that zinc oxide 
is open to the objection that it is lacking in " body." 

In another chapter will be explained at length what 
" body " is, and it must be acknowledged that white 
lead is superior in body to most, if not all, other pig- 
ments. In fact, it is this quality which has caused 
it to be used for so many years, notwithstanding its 
other shortcomings. Zinc oxide has a very good body, 
probably as good as white lead. If a proper com- 
parison be made, and if both be thinned out to a 
consistency suitable to be applied by brush, it is true 
that zinc will apparently not have so good a body 
as lead, but it will spread much farther. If an exactly 
equal quantity of lead and zinc are both painted 
on an exactly equal area, zinc will cover a little better 
than lead. In this state, however, the consistency 
of the zinc paint would be rather too thick for applica- 
tion with a brush, but it can, of course, be thinned 
very readily by adding oil. 

A careful consideration of these facts will show 
the practical painter that he will require really less 
zinc than he will lead to perform a good job, and when 
the durability is also taken into consideration as well 
as the beauty, it will not take long for him to make up 
his mind as to the superiority of zinc. 

There is one point, however, about its use which 
must be very clearly explained. Zinc oxide is, when 
compared with lead, quite light in weight, or, in other 
words, its volume is much greater than lead. Now, 
it being an entirely different product, it must not be 
treated in the same way as lead would be. The 
painter, perhaps, takes some zinc, mixes it with raw 
oil, with a liberal amount of patent driers and a more 



•.*•• - V» -^*3 '*»•» *»-*'' -^ - 




Graining Colours. Samples of Colours. 



INTRODUCTION. 



liberal dose of turpentine, and then he grumbles 
because it does not show up to advantage. What he 
does is to destroy its inherent good quahties. To 
repeat then, zinc oxide must not be treated in the same 
way as white lead. Anchovy sauce is excellent for 
fish, but would be rather distasteful with a chop or 
steak. So with these two important white pigments. 
The proper way to treat zinc oxide is to mix it 
with refined boiled oil, i.e., no driers should be used, 
and only just sufficient turpentine to bring it to the 
required consistency. Refined boiled oil may be had 
without difficulty from a number of makers. 
Being pale, it does not destroy the whiteness of the 
zinc, while it certainly aids considerably in drying. 
It is paler than raw linseed oil, and hence it does 
not destroy the most deficate tints, however fight. It 
will be observed that the words " zinc oxide " have 
been used in the above paragraphs instead of " zinc 
white," the term by which the pigment is usually 
known among painters. The reason for this is that 
the latter term is not infrequently appfied to an en- 
tirely different class of pigments of which Orr's white, 
Charlton white, and lithopone are the best kno\\Ti 
examples. 

Thinners. — Linseed oil is the principal vehicle 
used by painters. It is expensive, but no other oil 
can compare with it for good service. It is used both 
raw and boiled. Frequently a proportion of each is 
used in paint. Boiled oil is linseed oil, which has been 
heated to about 350° to 500° F. This causes the oil, 
when cool, to dry much quicker but dryers are with 
the same object usually added while the oil is hot. 
Boiled oil should dry hard in about twenty-four 
hours, and a good test is to paint a fittle on a watch 
glass. At the end of twenty-four hours it should 
have dried quite hard. There is a great difference 
of opinion among painters as to the proper use of 
boiled and raw oils. Some prefer to use boiled oil 



8 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



almost always, while others are of the opinion that 
the less used the better. The author's opinion is 
that good boiled oil may safely be used if mixed with 
the proper proportions of raw oil, depending upon the 
class of work to be done, and that this produces far 
better workthanitis possible to obtain bythe practice so 
frequently carried on of adding driers in excess to paint. 
Turpentine. — It is very important that the 
turpentines used in paint be pure. American turpen- 
tine is mostly used. Owing to its high price it is some- 
times adulterated, with disastrous effects upon the 
paint. It should be perfectly white in colour, and 
its purity can roughly be tested by dropping a httle 
on a sheet of writing paper. If it is adulterated, a 
greasy spot will remain, while if pure it will wholly 
disappear in a few minutes. When the adulterant is 
mineral oil it can usually be detected by the pecuhar 
blue colour it gives to the turpentine. 

Although American turpentine has for so many 
years enjoyed a practical monopoly among EngHsh 
painters, the Russian product has of late become very 
much more popular, and bids fair to prove a very 
formidable rival. The old adage that " necessity is 
the mother of invention " may aptly be applied to 
the condition of things concerning turpentine in recent 
years. American turps were very high in price, 
with no prospect of their lowering, as the pine forests 
are rapidly becoming exhausted. Painters therefore 
are compelled to look for something to take the place 
of American turps. One or two enterprising firms 
took up the question of Russian turpentine. Painters 
who have tried this have objected to it on account of 
its smell, but experience proved that it was quite 
possible to remove this objection almost wholly, and 
to obtain a turpentine practically water white which 
hould answer for the purpose of American turpentine, 
n fact, be identical with it in appearance, behaviour, 
flash point and specific gravity, with perhaps a slight 



■ ■■■^0''' 



INTRODUCTION. 



difference in smell, but nothing in the least objection- 
able. The most satisfactory substitutes at present on 
the market may be divided into three groups (a) The 
Russian and French turpentines ; (b) Spirits of petro- 
leum origin, and (c) Liquids produced by distillation 
of various pine products other than crude American 
turpentine. To these might be added the various 
mixtures which consist simply of blends of pure 
turpentine and petroleum spirit in proportions 
depending upon the price at which they are to be sold. 

An excellent turpentine which the author finds 
is equal to American in most respects, but is much 
cheaper, is termed " Canadian Turps," and is sold by 
Messrs. Dixon and Heydorn, 20, St. Dunstan's Hill, 
London, E.G. 

Spirits of petroleum origin are Hkely to prove- 
indeed are proving— very successful. Ordinary petro- 
leum, such as lamp oil, would be useless in a paint 
because it possesses no drying properties, while the 
hghter distillations of the same product, such as 
benzine, would be suitable if they did not evaporate 
so quickly. The efforts of the manufacturers have 
produced petroleum, spirits which possess neither of 
the objections mentioned, and they are increasing in 
use every day. 

Special Thinners.- -It is somewhat extraordinary 
that notwithstanding the care taken by enterprising 
paint m.anufacturers to improve the quality of their 
paint, it is only in recent years that any attempt has 
been made to sell special thinners. Just as a paint 
may be manufactured on a large scale by the aid of 
machinery, so a thinner might be prepared for use 
with special paints that would give quite satisfactory 
results and save considerable time in the mixing. 

We may mention a firm who manufacture special 
thinners, viz., Messrs. Gross, Sherwood and Heald, 
Ltd., who make a paint called " Lead white," which is of 
unusually fine quaUty, and is used with a special 



10 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



thinner called the " Grosswood Drying Medium." 
Messrs. Craig and Rose, Ltd., also manufacture a special 
paint called " Permadure," which the author has had 
the opportunity of testing, and which he finds of 
superior quality. This, too, is used with special 
thinners called the " Permadure Thinners." 

Paint Mixing. — For ordinary quantities of paint, 
the following is the method usually employed in 
mixing. A can or kettle is most usually employed 
for mixing the white lead or other base, and this is 
first thinned out and mixed with the driers and oil, 
the colour being afterwards added to it. It saves 
time to well beat up the lead with a wooden spatula, 
shaped Hke an oar or spade, before adding thinners of 
any kind. This having been done, a Uttle oil is first 
placed in the can, which is twisted around so that the 
oil covers every part of the inside surface. This 
prevents the lead sticking against the tin . A sufficient 
quantity of oil and the patent, or other driers, is then 
added. The lead is stirred and beaten against the 
sides of the tin until the whole is of the same con- 
sistency, and more oil is added until the thickness is 
not sufficient to support the stick standing upright. 
Turpentine may now be added to further thin the 
mixture, and then the colour is added. It may be 
noted here that the result is not so satisfactory if the 
turpentine is added before the oil. 

The best way of mixing tinting colours is to place 
them on a stone, thoroughly amalgamating one with 
the other by means of a spatula. When the colour is 
what is required it is added to the white. To take a 
simple case of a gray, a Httle black would be beaten 
up on the stone, and when quite thin added to the 
pot of white. This would then be stirred up thoroughly 
and the grey colour observed to see whether it was 
sufficiently dark. Then a very little red and blue 
might be prepared on the stone and this be added to 
the pot, the mixture being again stirred. Two very 



INTRODUCTION. 



II 



important rules must be observed at this point. The 
first is that the colours ground in oil should be used 
and not dry colours. If dry colours are employed, oil 
must be added to them on the stone and not in the 
pot. We may repeat, by way of emphasis, that under 
no circumstances must dry colours be added to the 
pot of colour. This is a rul.e to which there is no 
exception. The second rule, and one which is equally 
important, is to add only a small quantity of colour 
to the pot of white at the time. Taking the case 
once more of the grey, a httle black being added 
and the mixture well stirred, it can be seen at a glance 
whether the desired depth of shade is obtained. On 
the other hand, it would be quite impossible to take 
any of the black from the mixture, and should it be 
too dark, the only way to hghten it would be to add 
more white, and this would probably mean mixing 
much more paint than was required for the job. 

It will be understood that the above description 
of mixing refers to ordinary jobs such as are required 
in painting a house. When a considerable quantity 
of paint is to be mixed at the same time, a mechanical 
mixer may be used with great advantage. It is remark- 
able that painters do not use these paint mixers 
more frequently. They certainly effect a great deal of 
saving of time, and the outlay of a few pounds 
would be quickly repaid. 

Since the first edition of this book was published 
in which it was recommended to use a machine for 
mixing paints, considerable progress has been made 
in this direction and many contractors now realise 
that whenever a large quantity of paint is to be mixed, 
it pays far better to use a machine than it does 
to use the old fashioned method. The author's 
opinion is that excepting, perhaps, in very small 
shops, it would pay every employing painter to pur- 
chase a good paint mixer. 

Paint Mixing Macmines.— There are on the 



12 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



market several types of paint mixing machines. One 
known as the " Wee Macgregor," is represented in 
Fig. I, and is suitable for painters' use. It consists 
of a cylinder which contains the paint, and in this 
are three bent knives or paddles. The handle attached, 
on being operated, turns the cylinder in one direction 
and the knives in the opposite direction , these knives 
in the meantime revolving around on their own axes. 
The paint is thus mixed very quickly, and as the 




t IG. 1- 



cyhnder may be had to hold 2^ gallons, in the case 
of bridge work, wall work, or other positions where a 
very large quantity of the same paint is required, the 
purchase, for a few pounds, of such a machine may 
mean a saving of a considerable amount of labour. 

Fig. 2 shows a similar machine when the handle 
is thrown back which lifts the mixing blades out of 
the cyhnder, leaving it free to be hfted in order that 
the paint may be poured out. 



:.^f.%|gps.:: 




INTRODUCTION. 



13 



The mixers illustrated in Figs, i and 2 are manu- 
factured by Torrance and Sons, of Bitton, near Bristol. 
In many shops, where large quantities of stone colour 
and other paints have to be turned out, such a machine 
would soon repay its cost. As they are light in weight 
they could easily be moved from job to, job. 

The paint mixers above mentioned although 
excellent of their kind, are not quite suitable for mixing 




Fig. 2. 

very small quantities of paint or colour, and they are 
also almost too expensive for a small painter's shop. 
Messrs. Torrance and Sons, Ltd., have, however, 
recently brought out another mixer, the price of which 
is only /^2, and it is admirably adapted for its purpose, 
mixing the paint very thoroughly and quickly. As 
shown in Fig. 3, it consists of a conical cup or container 
resting upon a three jawed stand. The inside of the 



14 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



container is turned perfectly true, and has a polished 
surface. Against this surface rolls a heavy pestle or 
conical roll, which is shown in Fig. 4, suspended by a 
rod while out of use. The white lead, oil, etc., being 
placed in the container the pestle is rolled around and 
gives something akin to a grinding action at the same 
time that it mixes the solid and liquid together. 
There is nothing complicated to get out of order, and 




Fig. 3. 
everything can be wiped clean very easily. The 
colour being mixed the container is raised by the 
handles and the contents poured into the paint pot 
or through strainers ready for use. The author is 
writing from experience with this mixer, which he has 
pleasure in strongly recommending, not only to 
painters, but also to paint manufacturers who can 
use it to advantage in mixing samples and for other 
purposes where a larger mixer would entail much more 
time in cleaning. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

^ Paint Straining.— One of the chief quahties 
which distinguish painted work done by the amateur 
from that executed by the quahfied workman is in the 
number of specks or httle pieces on the surface of the 
paint. The amateur seems to think that straining 
the paint is unnecessary. The workman is fully 
aware that without it, it is impossible to produce good 
work. In fact, many painters always strain their 




Fig. 4. 

paint twice or even three times before they consider 
it ready for use. They thus remove all the Httle 
sohd pieces, and are able to give a good uniform 
surface. 

A piece of muslin is often used for this purpose, 
or a wire gauze strainer may be purchased for a small 
sum and will last for a considerable length of time. The 
advantage of this, in addition to its permanence, is that 
the hard portions of the paint may be beaten against 



i6 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



the gauze, and so the waste be reduced to a 

minimum. 

An excellent shape of paint strainer is that shown 

in Fig. 5, which is shown in parts in Fig. 6. A repre- 
sents the body of the strainer, 
B the chps which hold the 



compression band, C and D 
represents the gauze. The 
advantage of this construction 
is that the gauze after use 
may be easily taken out, 




Fig. 




^^^^^ 



Fig. 6. 



cleaned and re-placed. This strainer or its equiva- 
lent should form part of the equipment of every 
paint shop, large or small. 

Another form of paint strainer 
is used with muslin or coarse 
cloth, which is held in p)Osition by 
the circular rim, which holds 
also a plate, having in it large 
holes. These allow the paint to 
pass through, but the plate forms 
a substantial ground for the musUn, and the 
paint may be worked through with the brush. 

Another excellent paint 
strainer is made by Mr. 
Tom Batty, F.LB.D., of 
Drighhngton, near Bradford, 
Yorks, and is shown in Fig. 7. 
It will be seen that the 
essential feature is in a loose 
strainer which may be re- 
moved after use. This strainer 
is kept securely in position by 
means of a flange which screws 
in as clearly indicated in the 
drawing. The gauze strainers are supphed in quantities 
for a trifling sum, and the strainer itself will last for 
years, thus proving very effective and economical. 




Fig. 7. 



COLOURS OR STAINERS. 



17 



CHAPTER II. 



Colours or Stainers. 



We come now to a consideration of colours or 
stainers that have to be used in the mixtures given in 
the following chapters. 

As a rule, one or several colours are added to the 
base, producing a tint, shade or hue as may be required. 
Sometimes, but not often, colours are employed as 
" body colours," that is they are employed just as 
they are purchased ground in oil, excepting that they 
are thinned down with the requisite quantity of oil 
and turpentine and mixed with dryers. 

We may now give consideration to actual colour 
mixture, but must first make one or two points clear, 
so that the lists which follow may be properly under- 
stood. 

First, then, it should be said that colours vary 
in appearance according to the light in which they are 
viewed. For example, a colour, when looked at in 
the light of a sunny day in the open, has a very different 
appearance to that which it presents when viewed 
in a dark room. This will be explained at greater 
length further on. The mixtures here given refer 
principally to oil colours, and it must be clearly under- 
stood that the same results will not alwaj^s be obtained 
with artists' water colours. In the case of the latter, 
tints are obtained by the addition of water just as 
they are produced in oil colours by the addition of 
white lead or other white pigment. Separate chapters 
on artists' water colours and water paints or dis- 
tempers are included. 



i8 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



In examining the lists which follow, the reader 
may ask why we do not give the actual proportions 
of the different parts. The answer is that this is 
impossible for two reasons, the first being that colours 
vary so largely in quaHty that the proportions would 
be useless unless some particular make of colours was 
taken as a standard, while the second is ,that the 
names of the same colour vary also largely. Let us 
consider this point at once. 

The Nomenclature of Colours. — If half-a- 
dozen practical painters, experienced in colour mixing, 
were asked separately to mix a given colour, say a sea 
green, it is almost certain that when the six colours 
were compared there would not be two ahke. Each 
of the six painters might have had precisely the same 
make of colours to work with, and yet the " sea green 
would in each case be different. The explanation, of 
course, is that opinions differ as to what is a " sea 
green." 

In giving the samples of colour which are con- 
tained in this work the author was, under the circum- 
stances, somewhat puzzled to know exactly the right 
names to give each. His idea as to what was a bronze 
green, for example, might differ materially from the 
opinion of others, indeed, as it has already been 
explained, no two practical men would probably be 
found to agree as to the exact colour of two or three 
dozen differently named colours. Under these circum- 
stances, he decided to follow what appeared to be the 
general rule in the trade. With this obj ect he obtained 
the colour cards issued by all the leading paint manu- 
facturing firms in the country, as well as some from 
abroad. He then took the colours which he thought 
^yould be most useful to his readers, and then very 
carefully, and with a considerable amount of labour, 
compared each colour with similar colours in the 
different colour cards, taking note of the different 
names which different manufacturers called them. 



COLOURS OR STAINERS. 



19 



The result was very surprising, because it was found 
that in many cases there were as many names as there 
were manufacturers' cards represented. When, how- 
ever, the same name was used by several manufac- 
turers, that name was selected for the purpose of 
this work. The reader may, therefore, take it that 
the names employed here are those which are most 
general in the trade. As an instance of the variation 
of these names we may cite a few examples. 

Bronze green was called by different manu- 
facturers dark green, olive green, and sage green. 
In this case bronze green occurred more frequently 
than any other name. 

Tea green was called also olive green and Queen 
Anne green. 

Apple green was called very light sea green and 
Eau de Nil green. 

Sage green was called also olive and pale Quaker 
green. 

Venetian green was called also Imperial French 
green, light green, Shamrock green, bright green, 
mountain green, middle green, and engine green. 

Light chocolate was called dark maroon, red lake, 
metallic brown, and in one case the sample given of 
burnt sienna was almost identical. 

Olive green was called also sage green, deep olive 
green, and Quaker green. 

Dark green was called also medium green, Bruns- 
wick green, middle green, and deep coach green. 

Moss green some manufacturers evidentty thought 
was the same thing as bronze green. 

Pea green was called also sea green and Eau de Nil. 

Ivy green was called bronze green, sage green, 
Quaker green, olive green. 

Slate was called also Quaker blue and dark lead. 

Pearl grey was called also light grey. 

Lilac was called also French grey. 



II 



20 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Warm grey was called also deep stone, French 
grey, and light stone. 

Silver grey was called also lavender. 

Steel grey v/as called French grey in several 
instances, but we prefer to use the other term, as it 
appears to be nearer to what is usually known in this 
country as a French grey, that is, one which has a 
touch of red and blue in it. 

Another instance of the variation in the names of 
these colours is shown by light stone, which one would 
think Vv^as sufficiently well known to remove any doubt 
about it, bat this was called smoke grey, French grey, 
and dove. 

Middle stone was called also light drab. 

Moss grey was called also silver grey. 

Cream was called Manilla, light stone and. deep 
deck. 

Dark oak was called also dark drab and yellow 
bronze green. 

Dove colour was called also deep stone. 

Colonial yellow was called also straw, light stone, 
and deep cream. 

Deep drab was called also dark stone, Hght drab, 
dark drab and fawn ; one sample of raw Turkey umber 
was almost identical. 

Dark drab was given also as dark lava and middle 
drab. 

Dark oak was called also copper brown, hght oak, 
and Imperial brown, whilst in one case a sample of 
dark ochre was almost identical. 

Deep cream was called also cream and lemon. 

Primrose yellow was called also mustard yellow, 
canary and straw colour. 

Straw was called also Naples yellow and deep 
Naples yellow. 

Sandstone was called also dark stone. 

Stone colour was called also ecru and Hght stone. 

Smoke colour was called rustic drab and drab. 



COLOURS OR STAINERS. 



21 



Signal red was called also vermilion, geranium red 
and poppy red. 

Snuff brown was called also light brown,, sepia, 
dark ochre, umber brown and Arabian brown. 

Sienna brown was called also teak brown, coffee 
brown, deep Indian red and terra cotta. 

Amber brown was called also bison brown, sepia, 
and dark oak. 

Autumn leaf was called also leather lake, mast 
colour, middle oak, old gold, and light fawn. 

Fawn brown was called light drab and light lava. 

Light drab was called also middle drab and doe 
colour. 

Buff in one case was called yellow ochre. 

Acorn brown was called also umber, dark oak, 
dark brown, light brov.'n,, dark Indian brown, chestnut 
brown, middle chocolate, and Portland brown. 

With the above instances before him the reader 
will not, we think, take any exception to the names 
we have chosen for our sample colours. The same is 
true concerning the instructions for colour admixture. 
If a reader makes a mixture according to those instruc- 
tions and finds the result disappointing, the reason will 
probably be that his conception of the particular 
colour differs from that of the author, or it may arise 
from the fact that the colours used are of inferior 
quality. And it should be mentioned again, here, 
that every one of the mixtures has been made in 
oil colours, checked and checked again. 

For many years past efforts have been made by 
scientists and others to formulate a permanent nomen- 
clature for colours, tints, shades, and hues, but it 
cannot be said that so far any success has been met with. 
Should the efforts made prove ultimately successful, 
there is no doubt it would be a great boon to decorators, 
painters, and others ; for example, if a decorator 
wanted to order from his manufacturer a certain tint 
or colour, all he would have to do would be to send 



22 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



in the name. Prang, of Boston, in his work, " The 
Standard of Colour," endeavoured to systematise the 
subject, and he did this in the following manner. He 
produced sheets of colour divided up into several 
hundred squares. On the first sheet at the top was 
the spectrum of pure colours divided up, and beneath 
this, similar squares with similar colours, to which had 
been added a small portion of white. The line below 
this was the same again with more white added, and 
so on till the bottom of the sheet was reached, when 
the colours were greatly reduced by the white, the tints 
being naturally very light ones. The second sheet 
was exactly the same as the first, but a small portion 
of black had been added to all the colours and tints. 
The third sheet was the same thing again, with more 
black added, and the fourth sheet more black still, 
and so on to the end of the work. The colours were 
distinguished with letters, and the lines indicated the 
amount of white added by numbers. To anyone who 
possessed a copy of the work it would be a comparatively 
easy matter to order any colour from the book by 
number and letter, but the reader will readily perceive 
that this work falls short of the requirements of prac- 
tical decorators, inasmuch as it does not provide for the 
admixture of different colours, but only those pure 
colours which are in the spectrum. It is true enough 
that all colours are as a matter of fact included in the 
spectrum, but it is not so easy a matter to separate 
them for practical purposes. 

The variation in the names of colours above referred 
to has proved so inconvenient alike to manufacturers 
and decorators and other colour users, that an effort 
was made during 1906 by one leading firm of paint 
manufacturers to remove the difficulty by standard- 
ising sixty of those colours which are most used. With 
this object, the firm in question offered prizes' aggre- 
gating ;^ioo, and took a vote of several thousand com- 
petitors which included many eminent decorators 



i*:{-.;?l??KtV';; 



PLATE III. 



■ [i 


PALE DRAB 


PERSIAN ORANGE 


GREY 


PORTLAND STONE 


MAST COLOUR 


GREEN GREY 


DEEP ORANGE 


LIGHT VENETIAN GREEN 


SEA GREEN 


BRONZE BLUE 


TURKEY RED 


CRIMSON 


ULTRAMARINE 


BRUNSWICK GREEN 


PURPLE LAKE 


AMBER BROWN 



f 



p 



SS£ 



COLOURS OR STAINERS. 



23 



and colourists, besides architects, technical teachers 
and others. The firm in question was Messrs. Pinchin, 
Johnson and Company, Ltd., and the plan they adopted 
in carrying out their competition is worthy of record, 
because it demonstrates the value of the standard 
sheet so obtained. They first communicated with some 
200 prominent decorators and other colour experts, and 
from them obtained a hst of what was generally con- 
sidered to be the sixty colours most in use. It may 
be observed here that there is no reason why sixty 
colours should have been taken any more than fifty 
or 100, but, obviously, the work and expense of con- 
ducting this competition was very great and it was 
necessary to decide upon some specific number, and 
it was felt that sixty colours standardised would 
mean, at least, a big step in the direction of a general 
colour nomenclature. 

Having then settled as to which sixty colours 
should be included in their hst, they next sent to 
everyone of the several thousands of competitors four 
painted samples of each colour or 240 colours in aU. 
They also sent a sheet divided up into small squares, 
each square being printed with the particular name 
of the colour that was to be stuck down upon it. 
The competitor, therefore, was cahed upon to take 
any one colour, say sea green, and to select from the 
four samples of different shades or tints of sea green 
the one which in his opinion was best entitled to that 
name. This he stuck on the space allotted for it. 
He then proceeded to do exactly the same thing with 
the other fifty-nine colours and then sent the whole 
sheet to Messrs. Pinchin, Johnson and Company, Ltd. 
They employed a staff to go through each of these 
sheets to find out which of the four shades of different 
colour had received a majority of votes, and in this 
way evolved the winning shade — sixty of which 
formed the standard colour card. "^ 

The author's acknowledgements are due to the 



c 



II 



-24 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



firm for having supplied him with two coloured sheets, 
namely, Plates IV. and V., which give the whole of 
the standard colours. It will be seen by comparing 
these colours with others which appear in the book 
that they vary a little in some cases from those of 
other manufacturers, but it must be remembered that 
they represent the opinion of the majority of some 
3000 experts on the question. 

The Economy of Using Good Colours. — It may 
be taken as a safe rule for the painter to follow that 
where a good job is required the best materials only 
should be employed, but the reader may answer to 
this that the price paid to him for his work will fre- 
quently not permit of his doing this. We may 
leave the subject an open one which has really no 
place in these pages, except in so far as it relates to 
tinting colours, and here we can definitely and positively 
assert that it pays the painter best to use the best 
quahties of colour, quite irrespective of whether he 
gets a high price or a low price for his work. To 
explain : Let the reader assume that a large surface 
is to be painted a very Hght Prussian blue. The 
price for the work is fixed and the question to be 
determined is whether it will pay to use cheap Prussian 
blue or one of high quafity. Assume that a high 
quality blue costs 2s. per pound, and that just one 
pound of it is sufficient to tint the whole white to 
the required shade. We are purposely giving a 
simple case so as to make the matter clear. Now a 
Prussian blue can be bought for, say, is. 3d. a pound, 
but it would probably consist of at least one half of 
barytes or some other adulterant, which is of no value 
whatever as a stainer. If this colour is half strength 
it is obvious that two pounds of it would be required 
to tint the white for the work in hand, and this would 
cost 2s. 6d., against 2S. for the better class colour. 
This homely example should be taken to heart by 
every painter. He has only to experiment to find out 



COLOURS OR STAINERS. 



25 



that it never pays to use inferior tinting colours. Of 
course there is another reason why the best quaUty 
should be used, and that is, the appearance of the 
inferior colours is always muddy and unsatisfactory. 

Hue, Tint and Shade. — There is a good deal of 
confusion among some painters as to the meaning of 
the word " hue," " tint," and " shade," although there 
is no reason why any confusion should exist. The 
word " hue " is often employed to mean practically 
the same thing as a " colour," but strictly it means the 
particular cast or individuality, so to speak, of a 
colour. Thus we talk of a scarlet of a yellowish hue 
or a crimson of a bluish hue. A colour may consist of 
any mixture of other colours, or may be a pure colour 
itself. Now when white is added to any hue or colour 
a tint of that colour is produced. If black is added 
a shade of that colour is produced. In the decoration 
of our rooms we shall see that as an actual fact we 
obtain shades of the colour by the partial omission of 
hght, because the addition of black as a pigment to a 
colour acts in the same way as shutting off Hght. In 
mixing colours it is important to remember that black 
should not be used to lower the tone of a colour except- 
ing in rare instances. It only has the effect of pro- 
ducing a muddy appearance. A yellow that is too 
bright can be reduced, or made less staring, a painter 
might say, by adding a Httle blue and red. If a blue 
is too bright a Httle red and yellow should be added ; 
or if a red is too bright it may be toned down by the 
addition of a very Httle blue and yeHow. This is a 
most useful rule to observe, and as long as the quantity 
of the colours added is not too great, the results will 
please. 

In practice umber is a most useful colour to employ 
for lowering the brilHancy of a colour, but only a 
small quantity is necessary for the purpose. If the 
requisite tone cannot be obtained with a little umber 
and the mixture is still too bright it may be taken that 



i 



26 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



the proper colours have not been employed and the 
mixture should be changed. 

The very large range of colours prepared for the 
use of artists and decorators might lead one to 
suppose that mixtures of them would not often be 
required. Of course, as a matter of fact, an artist's 
palette is usually very restricted and consists of only 
a dozen or so colours from which he obtains all the 
tints, hues and shades he requires. Occasionally he 
may use a little of some additional expensive colour 
when a special effect is desired. 

The same thing is true in regard to the house 
painter and decorator, with the difference that the 
cost of colours is much more important to him than 
it is to the artist, because he uses comparatively such 
large quantities. Still, when pure tints are required, 
either rich or subdued, to give a finish to, or produce 
an unusual effect in, a piece of decoration, it will 
frequently be found cheapest in the end to procure a 
tube of some expensive colour than it would be to 
endeavour to imitate it by an admixture of pigments 
of an inferior quality. 




HOW TO MIX COLOURS. 



27 



CHAPTER III. 



HOW TO LEARN TO MIX AND MATCH COLOURS. 

The student in colour mixing is advised to put 
himself through a regular course of experiment or 
study in order that he may ascertain the pecuhar 
hue or tone of each of the principal stainers in constant 
use, and also become acquainted with the effect pro- 
duced by mixing white or other colours. 

REDS. 

Reds vary from those just removed in hue from 
browns up to the bright crimsons and madders, 
having their particular uses. The reader should pro- 
vide himself with a flat marble slab or piece of plate 
glass, or indeed any non-absorbent surface to conduct 
his experiment upon. He should take each of the 
reds, marked * in the Ust which follows, or as many 
of them as he may have, place a very httle of them 
on the slab, each separately, add a httle oil and spread 
them out with a spatula or palette knife. He should 
then carefully compare each with the other noting the 
particular hue ; then he should add a Httle white, 
nearly as possible the same quantity of each case, mix 
each one separately, and again note the difference. 
Of course, the spatula must be wiped clean between 
each mixing, and it is advisable to only mix white 
with one half of each specimen, so that upon the slab 
when finished there will be a range of reds and of tints 
made from those reds. 

n the experiments are to be conducted over a 
wide range of colours, it will be advisable to deal with 



28 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



them in groups, taking together such colours r as 
Indian red, Tuscan red, Venetian red, etc., and after- 
wards the other groups, such as the madders and 
crimsons, and the vermiUonettes, etc. It will be found 
a very good plan indeed to paint each sample on a 
board with the name and proportion and kind of white 
used underneath. By dividing up a board into small 
squares and painting one colour on each, and by having 
a separate board for each group, a set will be formed 
of great value for the purposes of comparison. 

To carry the experiment a httle further a small 
portion should be taken and a Httle black added to 
it and the tone noted. It will be seen that it gives 
a muddy cast. Now add a very Httle blue and yellow, 
and it will be noticed that the brightness of the original 
colour is distinctly toned down without lessening the 
brilHancy of the colour and that the muddy appearance 
is wholly absent. This teaches at once the important 
lesson that black unless under very exceptional cir- 
cumstances should not be added to lower the tone of 
the colour. It also shows the pecuHarities of the 
different reds. 

Facing the title page of this book are a number 
of samples of pure colours with corresponding samples 
showing tints of the same colours produced by the 
addition of white. A week, indeed, a month, may be 
spent very profitably in experiments with reds alone, 
indeed, the young man who is learning paint mixing 
must at the very beginning understand that observa- 
tion will assist him more completely in attaining 
success than any possible written instructions can do. 
The same plan as that above advised can be followed 
in the case of all other colours. 

BLUES. 

The two principal blues used by decorators are 
Prussian blue and ultramarine. The former is practi- 
cally permanent in oil, but is quite useless in distemper, 
while the latter cannot be mixed with white lead. 



HOW TO MIX COLOURS. 



29 



but is practically permanent in oil. It may, however, 
be safely mixed with zinc white, and many beautiful 
tones are obtained from its use. 

There is a wide range of ultramarines on the 
market, most of them having a tendency in hue toward 
the violet. Prussian, on the contrary, inclines toward 
the greys. Experiments with blues may be con - 
ducted in exactly the same manner as already explained 
under the head of " Reds." Ultramarine, Prussian blue, 
cobalt and indigo being compared, it will be found 
that indigo is a very useful colour if properly used, if 
only from the fact that a very little goes a long way. 
Cobalt is a very beautiful blue, but it is almost too 
expensive for use in ordinary house painting. 

When it is desired to tone a blue down, a little 
burnt sienna and white should be added. 



YELLOWS. 

The principal yellows used by the house painter 
are chromes, which are made in varying intensities. 
Some makers send out five or six different shades or 
tints ranging from a deep orange (which might almost 
be termed red) and gradually ranging Hghter up to 
canary. When white is added to either of these chromes 
it will be seen that there is a great deal of difference 
between one shade and another. In other words the 
lighter chromes may be looked upon as the deeper ones 
lightened up with white, yet, as a matter of fact this 
is a very rough and ready way of looking at chromes, 
because if a deep orange is lightened up with even a 
hundred or more parts of white, it will be still far 
from being the same cast of colour as light canary 
chrome. One is a distinct red cast and the other is a 
distinct greenish cast. Experiments, therefore, must 
be continued with the yellows just the same as they 
have been thrashed out with the other colours, and a 
couple of hours spent with four or five different grades 
of chrome will yield valuable information. All chromes 



30 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



are lead colours and they may not therefore be mixed 
with ultramarine. Cadmium yellow on the contrary 
is not affected by ultramarine. This colour, although 
somewhat expensive, might be used to a considerably 
greater extent than it is in house painting. 

Dutch pink is another yellow which is useful in 
distemper work, but is not used so much as it was 
formerly. Wall paper manufacturers still employ it 
to a considerable extent. Yellow ochre is a natural 
earth colour which is very useful, and of course, largely 
employed. It will be seen in the following Ust that 
it occurs in many of the mixtures. 

If a yellow is too bright it may be lowered by 
adding a smaU quantity of blue and red. Instructions 
for obtaining the various grades of yellow are given 
■explicitly in another chapter. 

GREENS. 

There is, of course, an immense range of greens, 
and the Hst below includes, in addition to those which 
may be purchased ready made, only those which are 
more or less frequently called for. To obtain a green, 
one can mix with yellow either blue or black. The 
painter who wishes to experiment should first mix, say, 
medium chrome yellow with Prussian blue, then with 
cobalt and then with cobalt or indigo, noting 
■carefully the difference in the hue obtained. It is well 
to keep the quantity of chrome about the same in each 
case, so that the difference obtained by the use of the 
respective blues may be the better appreciated. He 
should then change his yellow, mixing the same propor- 
tions as nearly as possible with lemon chrome and then 
with deep chrome, again noticing the difference in the 
colours obtained. Having done this he can go back 
to middle chrome and mix black with it in varying 
proportions. In this way he will obtain a good deal 
of practical knowledge in a short time concerning the 
different shades of green obtainable from these simple 
mixtures, and he will at the same time not forget the 



HOW TO MIX COLOURS. 



31 



relative costs of the different materials, so that he 
may learn to obtain desirable mixtures of colour from 
the least expensive of the pigments. Sometimes a 
green is obtained simply by lightening up with white 
a stock commercial green ; for example, pea green 
may easily be obtained by lightening pale Brunswick 
green. In some cases greens are produced by an ad- 
mixture of two or more colours, such, for instance, as 
willow green, which is made from ochre and indigo, 
and olive green from ochre and French ultramarine. 
Others have the addition of white, such as grass green, 
which is white, ochre and cobalt, and spring green, 
which is white, middle chrome and black. 

Having performed the foregoing experiments, the 
reader should next take up the study of tints and 
shades. In other words, he should add to the various 
mixtures obtained in the manner described, different 
quantities of first white and then black, and notice 
the effect obtained. 

Some colours are very much stronger for tinting 
purposes than others. For example, a Prussian blue 
will go a long way and a very little is sufficient to colour 
a considerable quantity of white lead. The next thing 
to be done is to add a little black to these colours and 
to note the result. We must again urge the reader 
not to use black in reducing his colours as a rule. If 
it is desired to reduce or lower a yellow in tone use 
blue and red, if a blue is too vivid add a little red and 
yellow, and if a red is too bright add a little blue and 
yellow — in other words, taking the three primaries, add 
to any one a very little of the other two. 

Having experimented in the manner above sug- 
gested, the reader will have gained considerable 
information, particularly as to that most difftcult part 
of colour mixing and matching, which arises from 
the variation in the strength of different coloured pig- 
ments. But it will be necessary to go much farther 
and to mix various colours one with the other in vary- 



32 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



ing proportions. Under the head of " Water Colours 
and How to Mix Them," will be found reference to a 
colour chart for water colour painting, by Mr. Frederick 
Oughton. The reader will do well to prepare such a 
chart in oil colours, and to keep it by him for constant 
reference. The same colours should, however, not be 
used as they are mostly too expensive for the house 
painters' use. The following is suggested : Take a 
fairly large board and divide it up into say eighteen 
different spaces, each containing three rows of six 
each ; mark these with the naines of any colours on 
the list of standard colours given in the coloured plates 
which are thought to be the most important to the 
number of eighteen. Then turn to the instructions 
given for mixing these colours, and proceed 
to give a little dab of each of the pure colours at the 
top of the space, blending them into the resultant 
named colour it is desired to produce. For example: 
Suppose the colour that is to be painted on the first 
space is myrtle green. We should have a large dab 
of dark chrome green at the top, by its side a similar 
dab of ultramarine blue, and by the side of this again 
a very little white lead. With a brush the three should 
be blended together to make the myrtle green, still 
leaving, however, a little of each of the three colours 
unmixed at the top. 

It is unnecessary to give the colours suggested for 
the other squares, because if the reader has sufficient 
patience, he might work through every named colour 
in this book. The point is to give on the same space 
the actual colour, and below, the colour produced by 
the admixture. Such as a board or'a series of boards 
should not be merely painted and set aside, but should 
be kept constantly in sight. A young man anxious 
to improve himself as rapidly as possible, might do 
worse than hang such a board upon the walls of his 
sitting-room, or even bed-room, so that he could see 
it very frequently, and in this way he would in the 



3--vt»' 



."j-ii ;sv 



HOW TO MIX COLOURS. 



33 



course of time gain much information on points which 
he would be hkely to overlook at the first mixing. 

A constant and very careful comparison between 
the different colours given in our coloured plates of 
samples will prove of material assistance particularly 
in the discrimination between oil and water colours, 
water paints and distempers. 

The matching of colours is more difficult than 
might appear at first sight, and yet a knowledge of 
it is essential to every decorator. There is no royal 
road to acquiring a knowledge of the subject, but the 
reader who works carefully through this book, and 
acts upon the advice given above, will possess all the 
necessary foundation upon which to build up a 
practical knowledge of the subject. The rest will be 
merely practice. 

The first thing to be done in matching a colour 
is to examine it very closely in the daylight, and 
endeavour to come to a conclusion as to what the 
prevailing colour in the mixture is. In other words, 
to discover what is the particular colour of which there 
is most in the mixture. If the reader has not lost 
the lessons which are to be learnt from the experiment 
he has already conducted, he will not have much 
difficulty in doing this as a rule. 

As a final word on the subject, it may be said the 
bug-bear of the inexperienced colour matcher is the 
difference between the intensity of the light by which 
he views his samples. It has already been explained 
that a colour varies in its appearance according to 
whether it is viewed in a strong or subdued light, or 
whether the light is natural, or gas, electric light, and 
one may also say whether incandescent or acetylene 
gas. A great deal of the disappointment which arises 
in matching colours arises from this very simple cause, 
and a colour mixed in a bright shop which looks exactly 
the right shade required, may, when applied to the 
walls of a somewhat dark room look much too sombre. 



34 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



If possible, the colour should be mixed in the 
same room in which it is to be used, and in cases of 
colours mixed for paint for sale, they should always 
be mixed in a light workshop, and never on a dull 
foggy day. It seems almost like carrying the matter 
too far to say that such a room should have a north 
Hght, yet this is very desirable, because if the window 
has any other aspect, the operations of the colour 
mixer may, on some fine showery spring day, be con- 
siderably hampered by intermittent floods of 
sunshine. 

The student is also recommended to carefully 
study Plate IX., which will yield considerable useful 
information concerning the production of different 
colours in distemper. These colours are all produced 
by three primary colours and white in the well known 
distemper Alabastine. These primaries are marked in 
Plate IX. " A," " B," and " 31 " respectively, and in 
the description of the plate will be found the exact 
proportions of these different colours and white, which 
may be used to produce all the other colours on the 
plate. By purchasing even a small quantit}^ of the 
four grades of blue, yellow, white, and Alabastine red, 
the student can experiment for himself, measuring the 
quantities by means of a small vessel, such as a wine- 
glass or cup ; indeed, for purely experimental purposes 
so small a vessel as a thimble would answer. The 
material is supplied in a powdered form, and the pro- 
portions are easily obtained. The writer would like 
to see in our public schools lessons given as to colour 
mixtures by the means indicated, and they certainly 
ought to form a^part of the instructions in every 
painter's school. 



REDS. 



35 



CHAPTER IV. 



REDS, AND HOW TO MIX THEM. 



Having proceeded through a course of study and 
experiment the student will now require the actual 
mixtures necessary to produce the various named 
colours. These are given in this chapter and those 
immediately following. 

Note.- — All colours marked * can he purchased 
ready made. 

Acacia. — This may be described as a dark maroon. 
It is made by mixing five parts of black, three of 
Indian red, and one of Prussian blue. Less of the 
black will give a more pleasing shade. 

*Alizarin Crimson. — A lake colour prepared from 
ahzarin or coal tar colours. Ahzarin crimson and 
scarlet are other varieties. They are not so briUiant 
as genuine madder colours, made from the madder root. 

Amaranthine. — This is a crimson which can be 
made by mixing three parts of vermilionette with one 
of Prussian blue. 

Anemone. — This is a reddish purple, and may be 
made by mixing two parts of black, one of white, six 
of a bright red, and six of Prussian blue. 

*Antwerp Crimson. — A fast red of a rich dark 
hue made by Messrs. Mander Brothers. 

Apricot. — Mix middle chrome yellow with a Uttle 
vermihon and add a very Httle lake. 

Armenian Red. — Mix one part of yellow ochre 
with two parts of Venetian red. 



36 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



AuRORE. — A dull pink shade, which can be pro- 
duced as follows : Mix together one part of Indian 
red, two of orange chrome, a Uttle lemon chrome, and 
two of blue, lightening up with white. 

Bay.— Mix together three parts of black, three of 
Venetian red, and a Httle orange chrome. 

Begonia. — A dark red purple, which may be 
obtained by mixing four parts of lamp black, five of 
bright red, and four of Prussian blue. 

Black Maroon.— Take four parts of black and 
mix them with one of a bright red and a little Prussian 

blue. 

Blood Red. — Any bright red toned down with a 
little black will produce a shade sometimes called by 
this name. 

Bordeaux Red.— Take one part of black and 
mix with it two parts of orange chrome and one of 
Prussian blue. Indian red glazed with lake gives the 
best effect. A colour is made under this name by 
Messrs. Mander Brothers. 

Brick. — Use two parts of French ochre to one 
part of Venetian red and one part of white lead, adding 
more ochre if required to Ughten the colour. This 
gives a good tint, sometimes called " brick red," and 
is suitable for outside work. 

Bright Scarlet.— Mix twenty parts of vermiUon, 
seven parts of pale chrome, and one part of golden 
ochre. A good vermihonette sUghtly toned down with 
yellow answers the same purpose. 

Bronze Red.— This is a red toned down with 
about a fourth part of black, a Uttle bright yellow or 
orange being added. 

*Brown Madder. — A permanent lake colour made 
from the madder root. Nearly fast both in oil and 
water. 

*BuRNT Carmine and Burnt Lake. — These are 
two names of the same water colour which is also 
called " Purple Lake." They are not permanent. 




iisj^vv-'^:?^; 







REDS. 



37 



*BuRNT Ochre. — Another name for light red ; 
also called " Burnt Roman Ochre." 

Cambridge Red. — Vermihon, to which is added 
about one twentieth part of Prussian blue, gives a 
colour sometimes called " Cambridge Red." 

*Carmine. — This colour is usually made from 
cochineal if it is to be made into a water colour, in 
which case it is quite fugitive. Carmine, when ground 
in oil, is usually made from alizarin and is nearly 
permanent. It is very useful for glazing in order to 
produce a rich red. 

*Carminette. — This is the registered name of an 
excellent colour manufactured by Messrs. Mander 
Brothers. It is a bright strong red, which is useful 
when protected with two coats of varnish. It is of 
no use, however, for tinting purposes, or in distemper. 

Carnation Red. — Three parts of carmine lake 
and one part of white lead give a carnation colour, but 
a better result is obtained by taking pure vermilion 
as a base and adding carmine and zinc white until the 
desired rich colour is obtained. This colour is not 
suitable for use outside. 

Carnation Rose. — White lead tinted with Indian 
red or vermiHon, or Rubinette, made by Messrs. 
Goodlass, Wall and Co., Ltd., of Liverpool. A 
beautiful colour can be obtained by simply tinting 
white with Lewis Berger's permanent crimson madder. 
■;,*Chinese Vermilion. — This is the name usually 
given to the deepest shade of vermilion. 

Cherry Red. — ^Mix together crimson lake, burnt 
sienna and azure blue, or two parts of vermilion and 
one part of carmine. 

Claret. — Mix two parts of carmine with one of 
ultramarine blue. A little vermilion may be added 
if desired, and this may render a little yellow necessary 
to tone down the colour. A less rich colour may be 
made by mixing Venetian red and yellow ochre, and 
glazing with crimson or madder. 




38 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Coral Pink. — This colour is useful only on inside 
work. It is made by mixing five parts of vermilion, 
two parts of white lead and one part of chrome yellow. 
Another recipe for producing shades of coral pink is 
one part of white, three of red, five of orange, and 
three of blue. 

*Crimson Lake. — A bright red colour made from 
cochineal (see Carmine). It is used both in oil and 
water, but is not permanent. 

*Crimson Madder (Permanent). — A beautiful 
and very useful colour manufactured by Messrs. Lewis 
Berger and Sons, Ltd., of Homerton, London, and 
shown on the plate facing title page of this book. 

*Dragon's Blood. — A rich, deep red made from 
the resin of that name. The genuine colour is fugitive 
and an imitation for use in water only is made by 
mixing burnt sienna, cochineal, lake and gamboge. 

Dregs of Wine. — This shade is produced by mix- 
ing Venetian red with a little lamp black and white lead. 
Egyptian. — A dull yellowish crimson made by 
using five parts of black, one and half of white, two of 
orange, and one of blue, and a very little red. 

^Extract of Vermilion. — Another name for 
Scarlet Vermilion. 

*Fast Maroon. — A speciahty of Messrs. 
Goodlass, Wall and Co. A useful colour for shop 
fronts, door panels, etc. Very rich in hue, and 
permanent. 

*Fast Red. — A series of bright scarlets usually of 
the vermihonette type. Messrs. Goodlass, Wall and 
Co. make one of the best known. 

*FiRE Red.— A brilUant red used instead of deep 
vermilion, to which it is superior. 

Flesh Colour. — One hundred and twenty parts, 
white lead, two parts yellow ochre, and one part 
Venetian red will produce an excellent flesh colour. 
Or mix eight parts of white lead, two parts of orange 
chrome yellow, and one part of light Venetian red. 



PLATE lY. 




57— Standard Burnt Sienna 



4— Standard Pearl Grey 



U-Standard Light Stone 





26— Standard Old Gold 



1— Standard Pink 



24— Standard Turquoise 






35-8tandardLt. Brunswick Green 



29— Standard Lt. Purple Brown 



54— Standard Dark Drab 






33— Standard Pompeian Red 



3— Standard Eau de Nil 



48— Standard Light Slate 






60— Standard Dark Lead 



30— Standard Buff 



16— Standard Light Blue 






13— Standard Light Indian Red 



19— Standard Electric Green 



59 -Standard Raw Sienna 






39-Standard Mid. Brunswick Green 



37— Standard Mid. Purple Brown 



52— Standard Dark Slate 






56— Standard Light Lead 



18— Standard Middle Stone 



12- Standard Lilac 




27-Standaro Light Bronze Green 





43— Standard Olive Green 



46— Standard Yellow Ochre 






58 -Standard Russet Brown 



49— Standard Chocolate 



25— Standard Deep Indian Red 



REDS. 



39 



An increased proportion of red may be employed 
where desired. A mixture of orange and white in the 
proportion of one part of the former to three parts of 
the latter may also be used, or a mixture of medium 
chrome yellow, ochre, and Venetian red added to white. 

French Red. — Use equal parts of Indian red and 
vermilion, and glaze with carmine or Berger's perma- 
nent crimson madder. 

Gazelle. — To obtain this mix Venetian red, lamp 
black and Indian red, and add sufficient white lead to 
produce the desired shade. 

*Geranium. — To produce this colour use nine 
parts of bright red and one of blue. Or Indian red 
may be used, afterwards glazing with madder lake for 
good work. Most of the larger colour manufacturers 
make geranium red which is better than one can obtain 
by mixing. 

Indl^n Pink. — Tint white lead with a little 
Indian red. 

*Indl\n Red. — This is a good permanent iron 
oxide pigment and is most useful in mixing with 
other colours. It is sometimes called " Mars' Red." 

^Italian Pink. — An artists' colour, also called 
" Yellow Carmine," " Yellow Madder," and" Yellow 
Lake." Not permanent. 

*LiGHT Red. — This term might be applied to any 
tint of red lightened up with white. It is, however, 
a definite name of a water colour which is also called 
" Burnt Ochre," " Burnt Roman Ochre," and " Terra 
Rosa." It is obtained by burning yellow ochre, and 
is quite permanent. An excellent light red for decor- 
ator's use is made by Messrs. Mander Brothers, which 
may be used for all paint work, including distemper. 

Light Pink. — Tint white lead with a little pure 
vermilion. The word " pink " does not bear any very 
definite meaning, as almost any bright red such as 
carmine or crimson added to plenty of white give a 
good pink just as vermilion does, but of another hue. 



D 



40 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



A very pretty and useful pink is made by adding white 
to permanent crimson madder, as shown on the plate 
facing the title page of this book. 

Light Salmon. — Tint white lead with raw Italian 
sienna, burnt ItaUan sienna, and burnt Turkey umber. 
Or tint white with any bright red, toning down with 
sienna. 

Lilac. — A great deal of difference of opinion exists 
as to this tint. One part of ultramarine to one part of 
bright carmine, added to eighty parts white lead, give 
a very good lilac. A cheaper way is to use Indian red 
and lamp black as a tinting colour, or rose pink may 
be added to the lead only. Yet another method for 
producing a Ulac is to mix three parts of bright Indian 
red, three parts of white lead, and one part of ultra- 
marine blue, but less white lead is preferred by some 
painters. A touch of yellow will help this colour if 
too raw for the purpose. 

*Madder Lake. — This is principally used by 
artists, but it is useful to the house decorator for 
glazing the best work where a bright red is required. 

Magenta. — Carmine and vermilion, with a little 
ultramarine blue, produce this colour. 

Mahogany Lake. — A pure lake of the maroon 
character. 

*Maroon. — This colour is obtained by mixing- 
carmine and blue black, and adding a small quantity 
of medium chrome yellow. It may also be made by 
mixing one part of ultramarine blue with three parts 
of Tuscan red. This gives a tint that is often con- 
sidered a little too red, but this defect may easily be 
remedied by adding more blue. Some painters add 
ivory black and a little chrome yellow to carmine. 

*Markeaton Red. — This well known speciality is 
a very bright red which lasts as long or longer than 
vermilion, but is considerably cheaper. It is made by 
Messrs. Ellam, Jones and Co., of Derby, and is used 
by many of the big railway companies, Post Office, etc. 



REDS. 



41 



*Mars' Orange. — Another name for Venetian red, 
which see. 

*Mars' Red. — Another name for Indian red, 
which see. 

Mexican Red. — Mix one part of red lead with 
four parts of Venetian red. 

Mikado. — Three parts of bhie and seven of red, 
mixed with a httle white, give this purpHsh red shade. 

Moorish Red. — Mix together three parts of ver- 
miUon and one part of rose pink. 

Mulberry. — This is a very dark purple obtained 
by adding a little blue and just a tinge of red to black. 

*New Persian Red. — Messrs. Mander Brothers 
make a bright red of good body which is sold under 
this name. It costs only yd. a lb., and is fairly fast, 
although it lasts better if protected by a coat of varnish. 
It must not be used for distemper. 

Old Rose. — Tint white lead with French ochre, 
Indian red, and lam.p black, or Venetian red and a 
very little lamp black may be used if desired. 

Opaque Pink. — Tint white lead with red lead. 
Opera Pink. — Tint white lead with a mixture of 
live parts of vermiHon and one part of medium chrome 
green. 

Oriental Red.— Mix one part of red lead with 
two parts of Indian red. 

Orange Scarlet. — This colour ma}^ be obtained 
by adding two parts of orange lead to one part of 
white lead. 

*Orange Vermilion. — The pale shade of ver- 
milion orange lead comes nearest to this colour. The 
tone may be made by adding chrome to vermilion. 

Peach Bloom. — This is a mixture of white lead 
and Venetian red. Or it may be produced by adding 
sufficient Indian red to white lead to give a warm tint 
and mixing it with equal proportions of white lead, 
lemon chrome yellow, ultramarine blue and light 
Indian red. Or a mixture of three parts of Indian 



42 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



red with seventeen parts of white is sometimes used. 
*Persian Red. — A bright scarlet. 
Pink.— White lead tinted with orange lead gives 
a bright pink. See also " Light Pink." 

*PiNK Madder. — A lake colour made from the 
madder root. It is made only in water. 

Plum. — Mix with equal parts of white lead, Indian 
red and ultramarine blue in the proportion of two 
parts of lead to one of each of the other colours. This 
makes a dark plum that is only suitable for inside 
work. If a light tint is desired add more white lead. 
A very rich plum may be obtained by mixing together 
ultramarine blue and carmine, and adding a Httle white 
and a httle yellow. 

*PoMPEiAN Red. — Small quantities of bright red 
and orange are mixed with black to produce this 
shade, but Tuscan red tinted with red gives a better 
result. 

Poppy. — Blue and vermilion mixed in the pro- 
portion of one of the former to twenty-four of the latter 
give this shade. Some colour mixers prefer to add a 
bright yellow instead of the blue. 

Purple. — Light Indian red, four parts ; white 
lead, three parts ; ultramarine blue, two parts ; or a 
purple may be obtained by mixing Indian red and 
white. A mixture preferred by some painters is made 
by mixing ultramarine and vermilion with a little 
white. A little crimson lake gives richness to the 
colour. 

*PuRPLE Lake. — A beautiful water colour called 
also "Burnt Carmine," and " Burnt Lake." It can- 
not be relied upon to stand light. 

*PuRPLE Oxide. — The correct name of purple 
brown or dark iron oxide. 

Red Ochre. — This earth colour is cheap, and can 
be readily bought in most places. It can be imitated 
by mixing Indian red and chrome and adding a little 
vermilion. 



REDS. 



43 



Red Terra Cotta. — Use equal proportions of 
burnt sienna and white lead. The tone may be varied 
by the addition of either of the umbers and the chromes. 
A good bright terra cotta is al so made by using Venetian 
red as a base and colouring up with ochre and a touch 
of lake. 

Regal Purple. — Mix together four parts of white 
lead, two parts of cobalt blue, and one part of carmine 
lake. 

Roan.— Mix black with half its quantity of red 
and add a very small proportion of blue and white. 

Rose. — Five parts of white lead mixed with two 
parts of carmine give a rose colour that is suitable for 
inside work only. An admirable rose colour may be 
obtained by using zinc white instead of white lead, as 
the zinc is a much purer white than the lead, and hence 
gives a purer tint. 

Rose Carnation.— Mix together one part of rose 
madder and eight parts of oxide of zinc. This is a 
beautiful colour, but the madder is too expensive for 
use except by artists. A very successful colour can be 
produced from Lewis Berger's Permanent Crimson 
Madder. 

*RosE Madder.— A lake colour made from the 
madder root. It is suitable both for oil and M-ater, 
but is not quite permanent. 

Rose Wood. — To produce this colour bright red 
is mixed with about six times the quantity of black 
and a very little green. The shade given is a very dark 
red. 

Royal Pink. — Mix together two parts of zinc 
white and carmine lake. This will only do for inside 
work. 

*Royal Purple.— Mix one part of vegetable black, 

one and half of rich red, and seven of Prussian blue. 

Some manufacturers make this colour ready for use. 

Salmon. — Six parts of white lead, one part of 

vermilion, and a Httle lemon chrome vellow. This 



44 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



mixture produces a colour somewhat bright. Another 
salmon colour is made by a mixture of raw sienna, 
burnt sienna, and burnt umber. A tmt preferred by 
some is produced bv addmg to the white, Venetian 
red, burnt umber and French ochre. Another method 
is to add vermiHon and golden ochre to white, which 
gives a nice bright colour. Venetian red and chrome, 
added to white, gives a duller colour. Still another 
mixture is Venetian red, vermilion, yellow ochre and 

white. . c . A 

*ScARLET Lake.— This colour is manufactured 
from a mixture of vermiHon and alizarin crimson. It 
is suitable both for oil and water, and is permanent. 
'a colour very similar may be obtained in one of the 
many vermiUonettes on the market. It will be con- 
venient to remember that all vermilions should be 
lightened by the use of pale chrome instead of white 
lead. Lead takes down the brilhancy of the colour, 

producing a pink. 

*ScARLET Red.— This is bought ready made, it 
is the name given to the brightest of the oxide pamts. 

*ScARLET Madder.— A permanent but rather 
weak alizarin with which many beautiful tints can 
be obtained. 

Shell Pink.— This colour is sometimes made by 
adding a httle good Indian red to white, but some 
decorators prefer to use vermiHon with a little chrome 
yeUow and burnt sienna. 

Shrimp Pink.— Mix Venetian red, burnt sienna and 
white lead, and add a Httle vermiHon. 

*SiGNAL Red.— This is usually scarlet vermiHon, 
but may be imitated by mixing orange lead, vermilion- 
ette and Paris white, or orange lead by itself may be 
tinted with vermiHonette. " Signal Red " is a well 

known speciality. 

Salmon Pink.— Tint white lead with equal parts 
of orange chrome and vermiHon. If zinc white is used 
instead of lead the colour will be found brighter. 



REDS. 



45 



*SuNLiGHT Red. — A specialty of Messrs. Mander 
Brothers. It is a deep crimson shade, is of good body, 
fast in light, and suitable for metal or wood signs, 
shop fronts or work exposed to the Hght, especially if 
varnished. 

Terra Cotta. — Mix together two parts of white 
lead to one part of burnt sienna. One of the best 
ways to produce a good terra cotta wall is to give a 
good under coat of white lead, orange chrome and a 
little Venetian red, and when dry to apply a finished 
coat made from Venetian red and a little orange chrome 
to which has been added a little white. vSee also under 
" Red Terra Cotta." 

*Terra Rosa. — Another name for Light Red, 
which see. 

Turkish Crescent Red. — Mix equal proportions 
of Indian red, vermilionette and rose pink. 

*TuscAN Red. — This can be bought ready made, 
and may be imitated by mixing ten parts of Indian 
red with one part English rose pink. Indian red is 
very similar in colour but somewhat darker. It is also 
cheap. 

Venetian Pink. — Tint white lead with a little 
Venetian red. 

*Venetian Red. — This colour is an iron oxide and 
is sometimes called " Mars' Orange." It is one of the 
most useful that the house painter has, being cheap, 
and having good covering power and body. It may 
be used both in oil and water, and is quite permanent. 
It is not very good for tinting purposes. It would not, 
of course, be often imitated, but Indian red — -a yqiy 
similar pigment — could be tinted with red. Or it may 
be imitated by mixing vermilion, yellow ochre, madder 
carmine, and a little Cappagh brown, which is an 
artists' colour, and is rarely used by house painters. 

*Vermilion. — This bright red is a mercuric sul- 
phide, i.e., a combination with sulphur and mercury. 
It cannot be imitated by an admixture of ordinary 



lit 



46 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



pigments, but there are many excellent substitutes on 
the market, most of them being vermilionettes. The 
pale variety of vermiHon is known also as " Orange 
Vermihon " and " Pale VermiHon." 

*Wagon Red.— Messrs. Mander Brothers make a 
beautiful colour under this name in two shades, "pale " 
and " deep." The latter is quite fast in Hght. 
Messrs. Manders' Wagon Red is not a vermiUonette. 
It is not intended for distemper. 

Wine Colour.— Add a Httle ivory black to a 
mixture of carmine and vermiUon. Or use Indian 
red mixed with a little black or umber, and glaze 
with madder. See also the chapter on " Glazing." 

*Yellow Lake, Yellow Madder, and Yellow 
Carmine, are three names given to the artists' colour 
which is more frequently known as " Itahan Pmk." 
It is very fugitive. 




BLUES. 



47 



CHAPTER VI. 



Blues, and how to mix them. 



Note. — All the colours marked * can be bought 
ready made. 

* Antwerp Blue. — This colour may be described 
as a weak Prussian blue. It is also called " cyanine 
blue " and " Leitch blue." If necessary to imitate it, 
mix one part of bright green with two parts of ultra- 
marine ; add a very little zinc or other white, but 
not lead. Brunswick blue is frequently used in the 
place of Antwerp blue. It may be used both in oil 
and water and is nearly permanent. 

*AzuRE Blue. — Also called " new blue " and 
sometimes used as a synonym of cobalt. To imitate 
mix one part of ultramarine blue and forty parts of 
zinc white. Another shade may be obtained by 
mixing forty-four parts of white, twenty-nine of 
green, and twenty-seven of blue. Or celestial blue 
and a little red on a base of white will give an azure 
shade. Cobalt and white may also be used. 

*Berlin Blue. — This is only another name for 
Prussian blue. 

Blue Grass Tint. — One part Prussian blue, three 
parts of emerald green, seven parts of white lead. 

*Bremen Blue. — This is a colour to be bought 
only ready made. It is not now much used, and is 
not suitable for an oil colour. 

*Bronze Blue. — A dark blue colour, which may 
be made by mixing three parts of black with one of 
Prussian blue. 



48 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



*Brunswick Blue. — This is bought ready made, 
aPxd can be imitated by adding white lead to Prussian 
bhie in suiftcient quantity to obtain the desired tint. 

*Ceurlean.— This is an artist's colour of a hght 
and somewhat greenish blue tone. It is a stannate 
of cobalt. An imitation may be made from ultra- 
marine and white, with a little yellow, although the 
colour is a difficult one to imitate successfully. 

*Ceruleum. — A colour introduced by Messrs. 
Rowney and Co. It contains tin (stannic) oxide, 
cobalt oxide, calcium sulphate, and siHcic oxide 
(silica). It is permanent both in oil and water colour. 

Celestial Blue. — About equal parts of Prussian 
blue, chrome green and white lead will give this colour, 
but there should be most white, and the tint should be 
more blue than green. 

*Chinese Blue. — Another name for Prussian blue, 
which see. Usually the term Chinese blue is appUed 
to a high grade Prussian blue, but sometimes the 
reverse is the case. 

*CoBALT. — This colour is alumina tinctured with 
oxide of cobalt. It is one of the best artists' colours, 
and cannot be successfully imitated. It is a beautiful 
and most useful colour, but unfortunately, it is expen- 
sive, and it is therefore only used in the finest 
work. It is quite permanent, both in oil and water. 

*Cyanine Blue. — Another name for Antwerp 
blue, which see. 

Dark Blue.— Obviously this is no very definite 
colour. Manufacturers often use one part of white, 
two of chrome green, and seven of Prussian blue. 
But ultramarine, or indeed any blue, may be used, 
and this may be first lightened with white, and black 
added as may be desired. 

Fog Blue.— Equal parts of burnt sienna and 
Prussian blue, fightened up with about twenty parts 
of white lead. 



I 

I 



r-j.^rX* :;.>1-^s'-* Vk^vr; 






^iSiiTO^i^^--^...; 



BLUES. 



49 



*French Blue. — The name is applied to the 
best quaUty of artificial ultramarine, which is some- 
times termed " French ultramarine." It is per- 
manent both in oil and water. 

FoRGET-ME-NoT.— This can hardly be termed a 
name of a colour, although it suggests a clearer idea 
than many of them. It can be obtained by adding 
white to cobalt. 

Gobelin Blue. — Mix together four parts of ivor}^ 
black, two of white, one of chrome green, and three 
of Prussian blue. 

Granite (Blue). — To produce this shade mix 
two parts of black with six of white and one of ultra- 
marine blue. 

Heliotrope. — This colour is obtained by using 
two parts of zinc white, three of bright red, and four 
of ultramarine blue. 

Implement Blue. — This is made simply by mixing 
ultramarine with white. Barytes and zinc mixed 
are frequently used for the white, as lead cannot be 
employed in the presence of ultramarine. 

*Indigo. — This dark blue is a natural vegetable 
pigment, being extracted from the Indigo plant. 
An imitation may be produced by using nine parts 
of black and four of Prussian blue, but this will not 
look Uke the real thing. Indigo should not be mixed 
with lead or lead chromates. It is, however, a very 
useful colour although not quite permanent, especially 
in oil. 

Lavender. — Three parts of ultramarine blue and 
one part of carmine, added to zinc as a base, give a 
very good lavender tint for inside work. Ivory black 
mixed with a little carmine and ultramarine and added 
to white lead may be employed for outside work. 

*Leitch Blue. — Another name for Antwerp 
Blue, which see. 

Light Blue. — This is simply an ultramarine blue 
tint produced by the addition of zinc ; or the colour 



50 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



may be obteiined by tinting white lead with Prussian 

blue. 

IKi *LiME Blue. — This is a colour much used formerly 

for mixing distemper, but artificial ultramarine has 

to a great extent supplanted it. It must not be used 

in oil. The colour usually sold for lime blue is a variety 

of ultramarine. 

Marine Blue.— A very dark blue, which is 
obtained by mixing one part of ultramarine blue with 
nine of ivory black. 

Mascot. — This is a very dark blue shade, which 
s got by mixing black and blue in the proportion of 
seven parts of the former to one of the latter with a 
very little green. 

*Mauve. — Is made from aniline, and is not per- 
manent either in oil or water. Four parts of cobalt 
blue, twelve parts of oxide of zinc, and one part of 
carmine lake give an excellent mauve, or the colour 
may be obtained by mixing yellow ochre, blue black, 
and Venetian red with a little white lead. Another 
shade is obtained with blue, red and white mixed 
in the following proportions : blue, three parts ; 
white, two parts ; red, one part. Or white may be 
tinted with ivory black, carmine and ultramarine. 

Methyl Blue. — Mix green with twelve times its 
quantity of blue and a touch of red. 

Mountain Blue. — One part of ivory black, two 
parts of rose madder, three parts of cobalt blue, and 
four parts of white lead. This colour is only intended 
or artists' use. 

Navy Blue. — Ivory or drop black mixed with 
one-fourth the quantity of blue will give this shade. 
Neutral Blue. — A series of neutral blues may 
be made by tinting white lead with Prussian blue and 
adding burnt umber, the quantity of blue and umber 
being varied according to the tint required. Good 
neutral blues may also be made by tinting white with 
raw umber and a Httle Prussian blue. Add either a 



BLUES. 



51 



little burnt sienna if a warm neutral blue is required, 
or a little black if one cool in appearance is desired. 
*New Blue.— Another name for azure blue, 
which see. 

Nile Blue.— Mix a Httle white with Prussian blue 
and chrome green, using rather less of the latter than 
the former. The result is a pale greenish blue. 

Normandy Blue.— To get this greenish blue shade 
mLx green and blue in about equal proportions with 
white. 

Oriental BLUE.-One part of lemon chrome 
yellow, two parts of Prussian blue and twenty parts 
of white lead. 

Peacock Blue.— This colour is one upon which 
opinion varies considerably. A splendid colour is 
made by taking cobalt as a base and adding a Httle 
white and a Httle Chinese blue. 

*Perfect Blue. — Some manufacturers produce 
this beautifully rich colour. It is very like cobalt, but 
sHghtly darker. 

*Permanent Blue.— a pale variety of the best 
quaHty of French (artificial) ultramarine. 

PoMPEiAN Blue.— This is made by tinting white 
with ultramarine and adding a little vermiHon and 
Italian ochre. 

Porcelain Blue.— To get this shade mix one part 
of zinc white and chrome green with four parts of 
ultramarine blue and a touch of black. 

*Prussian Blue.— This colour is certainly the most 
important blue the house painter has. It cannot be 
imitated. It works well in both water and oil, and 
IS transparent. It is very strong and care must be 
exercised in using it lest too great a quantity is added 
to a batch of paint, which might be spoilt in conse- 
quence. It is a ferro-cyanide of iron obtained by 
mixing together solutions of a ferric salt and an 
alkaline ferro-cyanide. Prussian blue is also called 




II 



52 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING, 



" Chinese blue." It is not quite permanent, and must 
not be used in distemper. 

Quaker Blue.— Add a little black to Prussian 
blue, and lighten up with white. 

Robin's Egg Blue.— Use white for base, tint with 
ultramarine until a fairly strong blue is obtained, and 
then tinge with a httle lemon chrome green. 

*RoYAL Blue.— This is made by adding a little 
white to Prussian blue with a touch of crimson lake. 
Some manufacturers make a very rich blue, which they 
sell under the name of Royal blue. 

Sapphire Blue.— One part of Chinese blue mixed 
with double the quantity of oxide of zinc. This 
should not be used for outside work. 

Sea Blue.— Two parts of Prussian blue, three 
parts of raw sienna, thirty parts white. 

Sky Blue.— This is the blue sold as " new blue. 
To imitate one part of Prussian blue added to one 
hundred and twenty parts of white lead give a sky 
blue but some prefer cobalt, and this is for many 
purposes doubtless the best. Still another method 
of obtaining sky blue is to tint white lead with a little 
hme blue, adding a very httle middle chrome, but the 
latter is more suitable for a distemper colour than it is 
for an oil paint, as lime blue is not very lasting m oil. 

Steel Blue.— Zinc white tinted with hme blue 
gives this colour for distemper. 

Stone Blue.— One part of raw umber, twice the 
quantity of Prussian blue on a base of white lead will 

give this colour. 

Transparent Violet.— Mix together four parts 
of ultramarine blue and one part of crimson lake. 
This is suitable only for artists' use. 

ToRQUOiSE Blue.— Two parts of cobalt blue, one 
part of emerald green, twelve parts of white lead. 

*Ultramarine (Artificial).— This is one of the 
chief blues used by the painter, and must be bought 
ready made. It is quite permanent, both m oil and 



BLUES. 



53 



water, and cannot be imitated, but it can be bought 
m many different qualities and shades, such as purple, 
cobalt, etc. It must not be mixed with chromes or 
white lead, as it contains sulphur, and there would 
on that account be a likelihood of discolouration. 
Natural ultramarine is very expensive. It is made 
from selected parts of the mineral lapis lazuli. 

*Ultramarine Ash.— An expensive artists' colour 
made m the same way as genuine ultramarine, but 
of a paler shade, owing to the larger proportion of 
stone allowed to remain. 

*Verona Blue.— This beautiful colour is manu- 
factured by Messrs. Lewis Berger and Sons, Ltd., 
of Homerton, London, and is most useful for high 
class decoration. 





11 



54 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER VI. 

YELLOWS, AND HOW TO MIX THEM. 

^OTB.— All the colours marked * can he bought 

ready made. . ■ 

AiABASTER.— This is a vellowish white m colour. 
Mix four parts of white with one of middle chrome 

vellow. . , ,, 

*Alizarin Yellow.— a comparatively new yello^^ 

lake made from the coal tar colours. 

Amber —An imitation of amber can be produced 
by mixing equal portions of burnt sienna, burnt 
umber, blue black and orange chrome yellow and 
adding a quantity of white lead until the desired tmt 

is obtained. 

Antique Bronze.— Add ivory black to orange 
chrome yellow in the proportion of about five parts 
of black and one part of orange. 

Asiatic Bronze.— One part medium chrome 
yellow, two parts raw umber, and Hghten with white 

lead. , J., 

*AuREOLiN.— An artist's water colour, often 

termed " cobalt yellow." It is a double nitrate of 
cobalt and potassium and was originally introduced 
by Messrs. Winsor and Newton. 

" *AuRORA YELLOW.— A speciality of Messrs.W msor 
and Newton, introduced by them in i88q. It is an 
opaque and brilHant variety of sulphide of cadmium 
of erreater body than ordinary cadmiums and a much 
better drier. It is as bright as the best chrome, but 
is quite permanent. 



PLATE V. 



36— Standard Royal Blue 


45— Standard Raw Umber 


2— Standard Cream 


22— Standard Dark Stone 


6— Standard Primrose 


20— Standard Electric Blue 


23— Standard Grass Green 


8— Standard French Grey 


21— Standard Mid. Indian Red 


5— Standard Signal Red 


10— Standard Lemon Chrome 


11— Standard Autumn Green 


47-Standard Dk. Brunswick Green 


51— Standard Dark Bronze Green 


50— Standard Light Drab 


9— Standard Carnation Red 


34— Standard Middle Chrome 


55 -Standard Holly Green 


7— Standard Sea Green 


28— Standard Azure Blue 


17— Standard Venetian Red 


53-8tanoard Burnt Umber 


31— Standard Mid, Bronze Green 


15— Standard Emerald Tint 


38-Standard Orange Chrome 


41— Standard Maroon 


42— Standard Terra Cotta 


40— Standard Brunswick Blue 


32— Standard Peacock Blue 


44— Standard Prussian Blue 



YELLOWS. 



55 



Biscuit Colour.— .The purest tints may be 
obtained by tinting zinc oxide with Naples yellow. 
Ochre added to white with a touch of umber may 
be used. 

Brass Yellow.— This may be obtained by mixing 
forty parts of white lead, twelve parts of light chrome 
yellow, one part raw umber, and one part burnt umber. 
Or a mixture of French ochre and medium chrome 
yellow, added to a Httle umber, with a touch of blue, 
may be used to tint white as a base. 

Bronze.— Take fourteen parts of black and add 
one part of yellow and two of green. See also under 
" Green." 

Bronze Yellow.— Mix together five parts of 
medium chrome yellow, three parts of white lead, and 
one part of raw umber. A mixture preferred by some 
painters is obtained from chrome yellow, French ochre 
and a little burnt umber. 

Buff. — Two parts of white lead and one part of 
yellow ochre produces a good buff, or white lead may 
be tinted with French ochre alone. Other shades are 
obtained with mixtures of two parts of black, four 
of white, one of red, and one and one-eighth of 
yellow. 

Buttercup.— White lead tinted with lemon 
chrome gives a nice buttercup yellow. 

*Cadmium Yellow.— This is an artist's colour of 
considerable value, but is, generaUy speaking, too 
expensive for house painters. It should not be mixed 
with chrome yellow, emerald green, or any pigment 
containing copper or lead, and tints should therefore 
be obtained by using zinc oxide. It is made in four 
shades : pale, medium, deep, and orange, and it 
cannot be successfully imitated. The palest shade is 
sometimes called ' ' Radiant yellow. ' ' Cadmium yellow 
is sulphide of cadmium and is quite permanent in oil 
and nearly so in water. 

E 




■11 
1 1 if 



56 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

Canary.— This is practically another name for 
straw tint, and it may be mixed in the same way. 
The proportions for an ordinary shade of canary are 
three parts of lemon chrome yellow to one part of 
white lead, but less yellow is often preferred. Another 
shade is obtained by mixing two parts of white, six of 
yellow and two of green. Some manufacturers make 
an extra light chrome yellow which they call by this 

name. . . , 

Chamois.— A dull yellow made by mixing four 

parts of white, five of yellow ochre and one of green. 
*Chinese Orange.— Another name for Ahzarm 

orange. r i_-x 1 a 

Chamoline.— Mix together five parts of white lead, 

three parts of raw sienna and one part of lemon yellow. 

Citrine.— Although this is a tertiary colour, 
and theoretically can be made from green and orange, 
opinions as to the exact shade somewhat differ. It 
may be made by mixing four parts of medium chrome 
yellow and one part of raw umber ; or five parts of 
lemon chrome yellow and two parts of raw umber. 

Citron.— To produce this colour use Venetian 
red as a base and add one part of Prussian blue, two 
of chrome yellow and two of white. 

*CiTRON Yellow. This is strictly zinc chrome 
or lemon yellow, but the name is sometimes used for 
chrome yellow (pale), which see. 

*CoBALT Yellow.— Another name for aureolm, 

which see. 

Colonial Yellow.— Medium chrome yellow 
mixed with white lead and a little dark orange chrome 
yellow gives this tint. 

Cream.— The best and purest tints of cream are 
obtained by tinting zinc oxide with a Uttle Naples 
yeUow. A good shade is obtained by mixing eight 
parts of white lead, two parts of French yellow ochre 
and a touch of Venetian red. French ochre and 
lead alone are often employed. Equal parts of raw 



YELLOWS. 



57 



sienna and orange chrome used to tint white gives a 
nice cream. There are many other methods of obtain- 
ing this tint. Note.—Ught buff, medium buff and 
dark buff may all be obtained in the same way by 
adding more or less of the French ochre or white. 

*Chrome Yellow.— Normal chromate of lead pro- 
duced by precipitation. These yellows are cheap and 
very useful to the house painter, but although per- 
manent in sunlight they darken when exposed to pure 
air. There are five different shades known as primrose, 
lemon, middle, orange and scarlet chrome. The latter 
is sometimes called orange chrome, deep. 

Daffodil. — Lemon chrome mixed with a little 
Venetian red will give this colour. 

*Daffodil Yellow.— This name is sometimes 
given to the palest tint of cadmium yellow. 

Deep Cream.— This colour is made by tinting 
white lead with yehow ochre and a httle Venetian red. 
(See Cream.) 

Ecru.— Tint white lead with French ochre and 
medium chrome yellow. A tint which is sometimes 
cahed stone colour is produced in the same way. 
Another shade of ecru may be obtained by mixing 
three parts of black, eight parts of white, three of 
medium chrome yellow, and one of Brunswick green. 

*Gamboge.— This is an artist's colour. It is a 
gum resin, is somewhat fugitive, and is useless for the 
purpose of the house painter. A preparation called 
" Gamboge "is ground in oil, but it is an alizarin yellow. 

Gold. — To obtain the colour known as "gold," 
white lead may be tinted with five parts of golden or 
yellow ochre and one part of vermilion, or a mixture 
of hght chrome yellow, French ochre and vermihon 
may be used instead to tint the white lead. The 
quantity of yellow used should be considerably more 
than the ochre. 

*GoLD Ochre.— Another name for Roman ochre. 



I 



58 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

Hay Colour.— French ochre, medium chrome 
yellow, and lamp black used as tinting colour for white 
lead will give a hay colour, or raw Italian sienna and 
lamp black may be employed if desired. 

*INDIAN Yellow.— A rich yellow made from 
" purree," the dung of camels, etc. It is chemically 
a magnesium salt, and if properly prepared by repeated 
washings is practically permanent. It is permanent 
both in oil and water. 

*ITALL\N Lake.— A colour made from quercitron 
bark. Also called Itahan pink, yellow madder, or 
yellow carmine. It is not permanent. 

Ivory.— Varying tints of ivory are best obtained 
by tinting zinc oxide with Naples yellow. The 
addition of a very Httle medium chrome yellow to white 
lead also produces an ivory or a very httle golden 
ochre may be used. Another way is to tint white 
very slightly with middle chrome and a touch of 

JoNOUiL Yellow.— Tint white lead with medium 
chrome yellow to which has been added a very little 
vermiUon red. One of the favourite methods is to 
employ sixteen parts white lead, one part of mdigo and 
two parts of Hght red, adding as much chrome yellow 
as may be desired. Another way of making jonquil 
yellow is by simply mixing with a httle green about 
forty times the quantity of yellow. 

*KiNGS Yellow.— This was formerly arsenious 
sulphide, but as that colour fades so rapidly pale 
chrome yellow is usually employed. 

Leghorn.— This is a pale yellow shade, which is 
obtained by mixing white and medium chrome yellow 
in about equal proportions. 

Lemon.— For this colour, lemon chrome yellow 
is used alone, but the tint may be made by using white 
lead for a base and adding medium chrome yellow 
until the desired tint is obtained. The tint that is 
usually preferred is obtained by mixing five parts of 



f 

I 



k. 



I 



YELLOWS. 



59 



chrome to two parts of white lead, and adding a little 
green. However, lemon chrome yellow purchased 
ready made is the best. In artists' colours a lemon 
yellow is made which is also called " strontium yellow," 
and sometimes " yellow ultramarine." 

Light Buff. — A little yellow ochre added to white 
lead gives a good buff colour, the tint varying with the 
■quantity of ochre. 

Light L')eck. — This colour may be produced by 
mixing medium and lemon chrome yellow with white. 

Light Stone. — Tint white lead with French ochre 
and lamp black. 

*Lemon Chrome. — This is the palest shade of 
lemon chrome yellow. Some makers produce a stiU 
lighter shade which they designate " canary chrome." 
It is very useful for preparing the lighter shades of 
yellow, and may be imitated by adding cadmium yellow 
to zinc white. 

*Lemon Yellow. — Is also called " Barium 
Yellow," and is a preparation of Chromate of Barium. 
In the deeper shades a little chromate of strontium 
is often used. The pale variety is also called yellow 
ultramarine or permanent yellow. Care should be 
taken to distinguish between lemon yellow and yellow 
chrome. Pure lemon yellow is permanent both in 
oil and water. 

Maize. — Mix yellow and white in the proportion 
of about three parts of the former to one of the latter 
to get this light yellow shade. 

*Mander's Yellow. — This is intended to be used 
as a substitute for old Oxford ochre, but is claimed 
to be superior. It is based on ochre and is of great 
strength and body. 

Manilla. — This colour is sometimes called " deep 
deck." It is made by tinting white lead with French 
ochre and chrome yellow. Or a mixture of white 
with four times the quantity of yellow will produce a 
shade of manilla. 



6o 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING, 



Marigold.— This is obtained by mixing a very 
little bright yellow with orange chrome. 

*Mars Yellow. — Another name for Roman ochre^ 
which see. It is quite permanent, both in water and 
oil. 

Melon. — Mix equal quantities of black and white. 
Add twice the bulk of orange chrome and a quantity 
of medium chrome equal to the mixture of black and 
white. 

Mushroom. — A dull yellow shade, which may be 
obtained by adding one part of orange and two of 
yellow to eight parts of black. 

Middle Stone. — Mix as described under " Stone,'" 
but use more umber and ochre. 

*Naples Yellow. — A permanent yellow made 
from an admixture of oxide of zinc and cadmium 
yellow. In oil colours it may be imitated by mixing 
lead or zinc with cadmium and adding a little ochre. 
Naples yellow, when mixed with varying proportions 
of zinc oxide, yields pure tints of cream, ivory and 
biscuit. 

Neutral Orange. — A water colour made from 
a mixture of cadmium yellow and Venetian or light 
red. 

Old Gold. — Use middle chrome with a Uttle 
vermilion and burnt sienna, and add a very little 
cobalt. A cheaper colour may be made by mixing 
ochre and burnt sienna. One part of green and three 
of bright yellow mixed with a little white will give an 
old gold shade. Or it may be obtained in the same 
way as " Gold " (which see), but a httle burnt umber 
may be added. Some painters prefer to tint white 
lead with a mixture of chrome, raw sienna and ver- 
miUon. White tinted with a little orange chrome 
and burnt umber also gives a good old gold tint. 

Olive Yellow. — This colour is sometimes called 
ohve brown. It is made by mixing three parts of 
burnt umber with one part of lemon chrome yellow. 






YELLOWS. 



6i 



a larger quantity of yellow being added if a lighter 
shade is required. Another method is to mix ten 
parts of black, one of orange, twelve of yellow, and 
five of green. 

Orange.— Mix white, yellow and orange in the 
following proportions : one part each of yellow and 
white and eighteen parts of orange. Or another 
shade is got with seventeen parts of orange, six of 
yellow and two of white. Orange chrome yellow can 
be easily purchased, however, and gives this colour 
without any admixture being necessary. 

*Orpiment. — Another name for pale chrome 

yellow. 

*OxFORD Ochre. — Another name for yellow ochre 

but usually appHed to a good grade. 

*Permanent Yellow. — Another name for lemon 
yellow (pale), which see. 

Persian Orange.— Mix fourteen parts of orange 
chrome, five parts of yellow ochre and one of white. 

PoMPEiAN Yellow. — Tint white with Italian 
ochre and add a very little ultramarine and vermilion. 

Portland Stone.— Mix equal parts of yellow 
ochre and raw umber, and lighten up with white until 
the desired tint is obtained. 

*Primrose Yellow. — Lemion chrome used by 
itself answers admirably. Another variety is called 
" citron yellow." 

Primrose.— Ten parts of white, three parts of 
green and four parts of yellow will give this light 
greenish yellow. Another shade is got by mixing one 
part of orange, two parts of green and five parts of 
yellow. 

*Radiant Yellow. — Another name for pale 

cadmium yellow. 

*RoMAN Ochre. — A bright coloured ochre often 
called " gold ochre " and sometimes " Mars yellow." 
It is quite permanent, both in oil and water. 



m 



62 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Spruce Yellow. — Add a little Venetian red to 
a mixture of French ochre and white lead. 

Stone. — This colour, so much used in London, is 
usually made by mixing together five parts of white 
lead, two parts of French yellow ochre and one part of 
burnt umber. By adding a little raw umber, the tint 
may be varied as desired. This colour is suitable for 
outside work. Another method for obtaining the 
shade is to tint white with medium chrome yellow and 
burnt umber. 

Straw Colour. — Lemon chrome mixed with raw 
umber. 

Straw. — -. White lead tinted with a Uttle 
chrome yellow produces an excellent straw tint, but 
some prefer to add a httle French ochre. Or medium 
chrome yellow may be used as a base, and a mixture 
added of white, French ochre and Venetian red. 

*Strontium Yellow. — ^^A name given to the 
deepest shade of lemon yellow. 

*Yellow Lake. — This is a very fugitive colour 
which has but little body, but is useful for glazing. 
It is also called " Itahan lake," " yellow madder," 
and " yellow carmine." To imitate it use equal parts 
of burnt umber and white lead and tint with chrome 
yellow and lake. Or mix umber and white in equal 
proportions and add Naples yellow and scarlet lake. 
To obtain this colour in its full richness it is quite 
necessar}^ to glaze either admixture with yellow lake. 

*Yellow Ochre. — :The ochres are natural mineral 
pigments, consisting of clay and ferric earth, which 
are among the cheapest and most useful at the command 
of house painters. They can be used in an}^ vehicle 
and are quite permanent, while they do not affect 
any other colour with which they may be used. Oxford 
ochre is generally accepted to be the brightest of the 
series, while it is distinguished also for the depth of 
its covering power. 



YELLOWS. 



63 



*Yellow Ultramarine. — Another name for lemon 
yellow (pale), which see. 

*ZiNC Yellow. — This is a chromate of zinc which 
is quite fast in light, and possesses the advantage of 
permanence even in the presence of impure air, 
sulphuretted hydrogen, etc. It may be mixed with 
other colours, without adversely affectijig them. It 
is also known as " zinc chrome " and " citron 
yellow." 




ii 



64 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

GREENS, AND HOW TO MIX THEM. 

Note. — The greens marked * in the following list 
may be purchased ready made. 

*Alizarin Green.— This series of greens is manu- 
factured from the coal tar colours and may be regarded 
as lakes. They are practically permanent, and take 
the place of sap green, Hooker's green, and Prussian 

green. 

Aloes.— A pale sage green shade. To obtain it 
mix six parts of black, three of white, one of chrome 
yellow, and three of Brunswick green. 

Apple Green.— The simplest way to obtain this 
is to mix medium chrome green with about thirty 
times the quantity of white lead, but other greens 
may be employed with the addition of a little Prussian 
blue when necessary . Or a li ttle orange chrome yellow 
may be added to the medium chrome green and white 
lead. A very good shade can be produced by mixing 
one part of white with four of yellow and nine of green. 

Autumn Green.— Mix one part of chrome yellow 
with seven of black and two of emerald green. 

*BiCE.— A water colour called also " Green Lake." 

Blue Green.— Equal proportions of deep chrome 
green and cobalt, or three parts of chrome green and 
one of Prussian blue, added to white lead in the pro- 
portion of about four times the quantity of lead to the 
mixture of green and blue, will give a tint which is 
sometimes called " Blue Green." 



t 



GREENS. 



65 



Bottle Green. — Mix together five parts of 
medium chrome green and one part of blue black. A 
similar colour may be obtained by adding Prussian 
blue to blue black and lemon chrome. Another shade 
is made by using four parts of black and one of green. 

*Bronze. — A water colour made of a mixture of 
chrome greens. 

Bronze Green. — The usual method is to mix 
black with chrome yellow (deep), but indigo may be 
used instead if desired. A much brighter colour is 
obtained by a mixture of medium chrome yellow, 
Prussian blue, and burnt sienna. Or the following 
recipe may be used : Middle chrome green, five parts^; 
blue black, one part, burnt umber, one part. A light 
bronze colour may be obtained by adding more green 
or by using light instead of medium green. Other 
shades of bronze green may be got by adding a little 
lamp black to dark chrome green, or by taking medium 
chrome green and adding lamp black and a fittle raw 
umber. 

*Brunswick Green.— This colour is sold in three 
shades. It may be imitated by a mixture of Prussian 
blue and chrome yellow. Chrome green is really the 
same colour, the latter being the name used by artists' 
colourmen. 

*CoBALT Green. — A useful, permanent colour 
manufactured by tinting oxide of zinc with oxide of 
cobalt. It is permanent both in water and oil. 

Chartreuse. — This is a light yellowish green 
colour. Mix four of chrome yellow and five of chrome 
green, lightening up with white. 

*CnROME (iREEN. — This colour is bought ready 
made, and is by no means permanent. It is not suit- 
able as a water colour. To produce it by admixture, 
add Prussian blue to lemon chrome yellow in the pro- 
portion of about one part of blue to eight parts of 
yellow. 

*Chromium Oxide. — This is a beautiful, rich and 



66 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



permanent green of an emerald green hue. Chemi- 
cally, it is a sesquioxide of chromium. It is an artist's 
colour. 

*CiNNABAR Green.— Similar in composition to 
chrome green, hut darker, owing to a deeper variety of 
chrome yellow being employed. It is not used in water, 
and is not quite permanent in oil. 

Eau de Nil.— Tint white lead with medium 
chrome yellow, emerald green and a touch of Prussian 
blue. 

Egyptian Green. — Add two parts of raw umber 
and one part of lemon pale yellow to white lead. 
Give the green tone to it by means of a little Prussian 
blue. 

Elephant Green.— A dark green, obtained by 
adding emerald green to black. 

Electric Green.— Mix blue black and lemon 
chrome, add a Httle cobalt and lighten up with white. 
Another method is to use emerald tint, and to add a 
little blue to it. Usually, the term is a very vague 
one, and is applied to almost any greenish blue. 

*Emerald Green.— This beautiful, bright green 
cannot be successfully imitated. It must not be mixed 
with ultramarine. The pigment is chemically an aceto- 
arsenite of copper, is a great favourite with some 
painters, while others never use it. In America, the 
pigment is known as " Paris green," but it is not there 
used to any extent by painters, although it is used 
as an insecticide. In the absence of the real thing, 
more or less presentable imitation may be obtained by 
mixing eight parts of white lead and one part of 
medium chrome green, or a light shade of chrome green 
may be used without lead. Emerald green, although 
so bright, has very little body, but it is very useful 
for glazing, i.e., a thin finishing coat is given over a 
good green ground to brighten it. Very near imitations 
of emerald green are made by most colour houses. 



GREENS. 



and are sold under various names such as emerald 
tinted green, emerald tint green, etc. They are not, 
however, suitable for distemper. Emerald green stands 
better in oil than it does in water. 

Foliage Green. — One part of blue black may be 
mixed with four parts of lemon chrome. Use medium 
chrome yellow if a darker shade is required. 

French Green. — This is a bright yellowish green, 
which may be obtained by adding to emerald or deep 
chrome green about one-tenth part chrome yellow. 
Yellow ochre is sometimes used instead. 

Gage Green. — This is a variety of sage green. It 
may be made in the same way as pea green, and when 
this is reached a little black should be added to bring 
it to the required sage colour, 

*Genuine Green. — This is usually to be had 
ready mixed, but it varies considerably in name as 
well as in the exact tint. It comes very near to what 
some manufacturers call " Deep Royal Green," while 
it is not far removed from an olive. 

Grass Green. — The colour sold as " extra light 
chrome green " makes a splendid grass green without 
any addition, but if it is not available, lighten up 
medium or dark chrome green with chrome yellow. 

'*Green Bice. — See Bice. 

Green Slate. — Tint white lead with a bright 
green toned down with ochre and lamp black. 

*Green Lake. — A water colour also called " Green 
Bice." 

Green Stone. — Twelve parts of white lead tinted 
with one part medium chrome green and one part of 
raw umber give this tint, or the tinting colours may 
be French ochre and emerald green with a little lamp 
black. 

Grey Green. — Use ultramarine blue, lemon 
chrome yellow, blue black and white lead. 

*Guignet's Green. — Another name for Viridian, 
which see. 



68 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



^Hooker's Green. — An artist's colour made in 
three or more beautiful shades and called also " Alizarin 
Green." Originally Hooker's green was made from an 
admixture of pigments, but its fugitive character has 
led to the alizarin being substituted by some firms. 

*HoLLY Green. — A useful colour made by Messrs. 
Thomas Fewster and Son, Ltd., of Hull. 

Invisible CtREEN. — A dark green made by mixing 
nine parts of black and one of bright green. 

Ivy Green. — -This is produced by a mixture of 
French ochre, lamp black and Prussian blue. 

Leaf Bud. — This colour is suitable for inside work. 
It is made by mixing orange chrome yellow, light 
chrome green and white lead in equal proportions. 

Light Green. — Equal quantities of white and 
blue and rather more than twice the amount of green 
give a very good shade. 

Light Olive Green. — Mix three parts of middle 
chrome, two parts of black, and one part of burnt 
sienna and lighten up with white lead until the desired 
colour is obtained. 

*LiME Green. — This is a very fast colour which 
is bought ready for use, and is only suitable for dis- 
temper, etc. It cannot be used with oil. 

*Malachite Green. — A prepared native carbon- 
ate of copper. 

Manse Green. — This is produced from a mixture 
of a bright green, medium chrome yellow and French 
ochre. 

Marine Green. — Mix one part of middle chrome 
green with four of black. 

Medium. — A green of this name may be purchased 
ready made. It is very similar to middle Brunswick 
green. 

Mignonette. — This is a dark green shade, obtained 
by mixing one part of chrome yellow and one of Prus- 
sian blue with three parts of chrome green and fifteen 
parts of black. 



GREENS. 



69 



Muscovite. — This is a dark sage yellow greenish 
shade. It may be obtained by mixing six parts of 
Prussian blue, thirteen of chrome green, three of 
orange chrome, eight of white, and twenty of black. 

Moss Green. — Tint white lead with French ochre, 
a bright green and a little lamp black. 

Moss Rose. — This pale greenish shade is obtained 
by mixing chrome or Brunswiclc green, bright yellow 
and white in the proportions of one part green, four 
of yellow and three of white. 

Mountain Green. — Add to medium chrome 
yellow sufficient cobalt to produce the desired hue, 
adding a little white if necessary. 

Myrtle. — Three parts of dark chrome green, one 
part of ultramarine blue, and a little white lead will 
give an excellent myrtle colour. 

Night Green. — Seven parts of chrome green and 
three parts of yellow ochre will give this shade. 

Nile Green. — Five parts of white, nine of emerald 
green and six of Prussian blue will give this shade. 
This may also be mixed in the manner described in 
" Eau de Nil." 

Olive. — Mix together ten parts of lemon chrome 
yellow, one part of ultramarine blue and one part of 
light Indian red. Another method is to use eight parts 
of lemon chrome yellow, one part of blue black, and 
one part of Prussian blue. Or the following propor- 
tions give very good shades : Three parts black, four 
parts white, four parts red, two parts yellow, and 
eleven parts green ; or, fifteen parts of white, twenty 
of red, twelve of yellow, and fifty-three of green. 
Some painters add equal portions of Prussian blue 
and lamp black to lemon chrome yellow for a base, or 
the base may be ochre instead of chrome, and a little 
of the yellow be added. 

*Olive Green. — The colour sold under this name 
is made from quercitron lake and ultramarine. In 



70 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



water colour it consists of a combination of Indian 
yellow, umber and indigo. 

*Olive Lake. — An artist's colour more familiarly 
known as" vSap green," and sometimes" Olive green." 

Oriental Green. — Is made by mixing equal pro- 
portions of raw umber and lemon chrome yellow. 

Peacock Green.— A mixture of seven parts of 
white, fifty parts of emerald green and forty-three of 
Prussian blue will give this shade. A Uttle yellow is 
sometimes added. The colour is best produced by 
giving a final transparent coat over a ground colour. 
For the ground mix a rich green, a very deep Bruns- 
wick green and middle chrome. Over this apply a 
very thin coat of a deep bluish green made from Prussian 
blue and lemon chrome. 

Pea Green.— Forty-eight parts of white lead and 
one part of chrome green will give this colour, or 
emerald green may be used if desired. Some makers 
mix medium chrome green and white lead in the pro- 
portion of five parts of the latter to one part of the 
former to obtain a pea green, but the proportions may 
be varied according to the exact shade required. 

Persian Green. — This is only another name for 
emerald green, the vivid and somewhat staring hue 
being sometimes employed in Oriental decorations and 
being then termed " Persian green." 

PiSTACHE. — This is a yellowish green shade. It 
may be obtained by mixing seven parts of black, one 
of yellow ochre and one and half of chrome green. Or 
chrome yellow may, if desired, be substituted for the 
ochre. 

*Privet Green. — A useful green, guaranteed not 
to face, made by Messrs. Goodlass, Wall and Co. 

*Prussian Green. — This is sometimes an alizarin 
green. More often it is made of a mixture of gamboge 
and Prussian blue for water and quercitron lake and 
Prussian blue in oil. It is fairly permanent both in 



PLATE VI. 




* No. 6 WHITE 




* No. 57 PALE BUFF 



No. 3 CANARY 




No. 23 PALE GOLD 




^ No. 30 MIDDLE SALMON 




* No. 8 TERRA GOTTA 






« No. 15 MIDDLE BLUE 




» No. 58 DULL BLUE 




* No. 20 DEEP BLUE 




* No. 73 DARK PEACOCK BLUE 



* No. 66 PERMANENT GREEN 




No. 14 LIGHT GREEN 




^ No. 65 LIGHT CRIMSON 




¥: No. 67 CLARET 




No. 21 SAXON GREEN 




No. 38 MIDDLE BRONZE GREEN 



FOR DESCRIPTION SEE PAGE WM- JBI. 






GREENS, 



71 



water and oil. To imitate, mix five parts black, three 
parts chrome yellow, and twelve parts emerald or 
medium chrome green. 

Quaker Green. — Mix equal proportions of Vene- 
tian red and medium chrome yellow, and add blue 
black. Add to this mixture a quantity of chrome 
green equal in bulk to the three. This will give an 
excellent Quaker green. 

*QuEEN Anjste Green.— a useful neutral green 
made by Messrs. Mander Brothers. 

Reed Green. — Mix white, chrome yellow and 
chrome green in about equal quantities to produce 
this shade. The name, however, has no special sig- 
nificance, and an admixture of almost any yellow and 
green, Hghtened up with white, might be used instead. 

*RoYAL Green. — A rich green usually made in 
three or four shades. 

Sage Green. — This may be produced by tinting 
white lead with four parts of Hght chrome green and 
one part of ivory black, or the white lead may be 
tinted with a mixture of French ochre, lamp black, 
and Prussian blue. Another recipe is as follows : Add 
raw umber and chrome green in the proportion of 
about one part of the former to two parts of the latter 
added to white lead until the desired shade is obtained. 
A pale Brunswick green and a very little black used 
to tint white also gives a good sage green. 

*Sap Green. — An artist's colour known also as 
" Olive green." The colour was formerly made by 
the admixture of various pigments and was by no 
means permanent, but now the ahzarin colours are" 
usually employed both for water and oil. Mix with 
white lead, medium chrome yellow, and a very Httle 
lamp black. 

*Saxon Green. — A useful colour of lead base. 

Sea Foam. — Tint white lead with medium chrome 
yellow and emerald green, or if too bright, use medium 
chrome green instead of the emerald. 



i 



m 



72 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Sea Green. — This colour is obtained by adding 
deep chrome to white lead. Another sea green, and a 
very good one, is obtained by mixing Hght Brunswick 
green, raw sienna or ochre and white.^ 

■ ir vSeered Green. — Tint white] lead with French 
ochre, medium chrome yellow and a Uttlejbright green. 

', Starling's Egg Green. — Admixture of hght 
chrome and Prussian blue, lightened up with ^white, 
will produce this colour. 

*SuFFiELD Greens. — A series of beautiful greens 
made in nine shades by Messrs. Mander Brothers, 
Wolverhampton. They are a decided improvement on 
Brunswick greens, standing the hght much better. 
They are made in various useful art shades, and the 
author, who has used them, considers them to be 
worthy of the highest praise from a decorator's point 
of view. 

Tea Green. — Medium royal green, chrome yellow 
and lamp black, added to white lead will give this 
colour. 

Terre Verte. — A natural green earth found in 
Italy and elsewhere. A yellowish variety is sold called 
olive terra verte. It is quite permanent both in water 
and oil. 

Velvet Green. — Mix three parts of burnt sienna, 
five parts of Hght chrome green, and eight parts white 
lead. 

♦Veronese Green. — See Viridian. 

Venetian Green. — Lighten up dark chrome green 
with white lead. 

*ViRiDiAN. — A beautiful transparent green ; also 
called Veronese green. It is a hydrated chromium 
sesquioxide and was originally introduced by Messrs. 
Winsor and Newton. It is useful to the decorator for 
glazing, and is permanent both in water and oil. 



GREENS. 



73 



Water Green. — Raw sienna mixed with a little 
deep chrome green and added to white lead gives a 
water green tint. 

Willow Green. — Tint white lead with medium 
chrome green, and add a little burnt umber or ivory 
black. 

*ZiNC Green. — A bright colour intended to take 
the place of Brunswick green as it stands the light 
and impure air better. ~ '~ 




74 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER IX. 



BROWNS, AND HOW TO MIX THEM. 

There is no definite line of demarcation between 
the browns and the darker yellows any more than 
there is between the bines and the greens, or the reds 
and the oranges. One colour may be said to merge 
into the other. Still, Vandyke brown may be taken 
as a typical brown, and should therefore be experi- 
mented with. Umber is another valuable brown 
which yields tints of a somewhat greenish hue. In 
comparing different browns it is well to mix not only 
white with them, but also Venetian red, orange and 
yellow in various proportions. Then add a httle 
black, and then ochre, and perhaps sienna. 

The colour mixer who has worked conscientiously 
through this book thus far, will probably be surprised 
at finding the number of rich browns obtainable by 

these means. 

Acorn Brown.— This is very similar^ to a rich 
chocolate, and may be made in the same way. 

Alderney.— This is an orange brown in hue, 
and may be made by mixing fourteen parts of black, 
one of white, two of orange, and three of yellow. 

* Amber Brown.— Mix together six parts of 
burnt umber, four parts of medium chrome, and 
three parts burnt sienna. 

Arabian Brown.— This is a dark terra-cotta, 
and may be made by adding white and black to Indian 
red. 



BROWNS. 



75 



Argus Brown. — This is a very dark brown, and 
may be made by mixing six parts of black with 
two parts of orange and one part of yellow. 

Auburn Tan. — This is also called " auburn 
brown." Mix together one part of burnt umber, 
three parts of golden ochre and twenty parts of white 
lead or zinc oxide. 

Autumn Leaf. — This is also called " leather 
lake." It may be made by mixing on a base of white 
lead, French ochre, orange chrome yellow and Venetian 
red. 

Bismark. — A shade of this name may be produced 
by using two parts of black, one of red and one of 
orange, which mixed together form an orange brown. 

*BisMARK Brown.— This colour is obtained by 
mixing with six parts of black, one part of orange and 
one of yellow. 

*BiSTRE. — This colour is made from soot obtained 
by burning wood. It is principally used by artists, 
and must not be mixed with oil. It is not always 
reliable for its permanency. It may be imitated by 
mixing together ten parts of black with two of red and 
a httle green. 

*BiTUMEN. — A dark colour called also asphaltum. 
It is not ground in water and is liable to cause cracks 
in paint. 

Bronze Brown. — Black coloured with a little 
orange chrome and bright green. 

Brown. — The methods of obtaining different 
browns will be found under the headings of the re- 
spective names, such as " Chestnut," etc. A good 
average brown may be obtained by mixing together 
three of Indian red, two parts of lamp black and one 
part of yellow ochre. A lighter colour is obtained by 
using more ochre and less black, in fact, a large variety 
of brown tints may be produced by varying the pro- 
portions of ochre and black. 



76 



PAINT AND -COLOUR MIXING. 



*Brown Ochre.— Also called " Roman ochre/' 
which see. 

Brown Pink.— A lake made from quercitron bark, 
[t is fugitive. 

Burnt Rose. — This is a dark red brown shade. 
To produce it use two parts of black, one and half 
parts of red, two parts of orange, and one of blue. 

*BuRNT Sienna.— This is a sienna calcined, the 
effect being to produce a darker shade. It is quite 
permanent, both in oil and water. The colour 
is a most useful one, and will be found in man}^ of 
the mixtures in this book. 

*BuRNT Umber.- — This is a rich dark greenish 
brown, but the shade varies considerably m different 
qualities. It is made from natural earths by calcining, 
and is permanent both in oil and water. Turkey 
umber is the richest. Umbers should always be 
purchased ground ready for use. 

Cafe au Lait. — To produce this shade mix five 
parts of black, three of white, one of yellow, and a little 
orange. A little red may also be added if desired. 

*Caledonian Brown. — A natural earth in which 
the colour is due to ferric oxide. An imitation may 
be made by mixing Vandyke brown and sienna. 

*Cappagh Brown. — This is an artist's colour of a 
reddish brown colour, being very like umber. It 
contains manganese. 

*Cassell Earth. — Another name for Vandyke 
brown, which see. 

Chestnut.— This rich brown may be obtained by 
mixing four parts of medium chrome yellow and two 
parts of Venetian red. One part of yellow ochre may 
be added if desired. Equal parts of chrome and 
vermilion with a little black may also be used. 

Chocolate. — Five parts of burnt sienna and one 
part of carmine or lake give a rich chocolate. A less 
expensive colour is obtained by mixing Indian red 



BROWNS. 



77 



and lamp black with a little yellow ochre. A touch of 
vermihon will clear and brighten this mixture. Another 
way to produce chocolate is to mix black with red, 
but this gives a more or less muddy shade. 
White and burnt umber also yield a chocolate brown. 

Cinnamon. — Six parts white lead, two parts burnt 
sienna, and one part of golden ochre make a good 
cinnamon ; or French ochre, EngUsh Indian red and 
a little lamp black will produce the same colour. 
Another way is to mix Itahan sienna and burnt umber. 

Clay Drab.— Mix equal parts of white lead, raw 
umber and raw sienna, and add a little chrome if 
desired. Some painters prefer to add a Httle medium 
chrome yellow. 

Cocoa-nut Brown. — This shade may be obtained 
by mixing one part of white lead or zinc oxide with 
double the quantity of burnt umber. 

♦Cyprus Umber.— Another name for raw umber. 

Coffee.— To produce this colour mix together 
five parts of burnt umber, two parts of yellow ochre 
and one part of burnt sienna. 

♦Cologne Earth.— Another name for Vandyke 
brown. It is permanent in oil, but fades slightly in 

water. 

Copper. — Tint zinc white with French ochre, 
Italian sienna and lamp black to obtain the shade 
shown in the sample. A very good copper shade is 
obtained by mixing two parts of medium chrome yellow, 
one part of Venetian red, and one part of drop black 
or two parts of lamp black, three parts of medium 
chrome yellow and six parts of Venetian red. 

Cork Colour.— Tint white lead with French 
ochre, Indian red and a little lamp black, or with raw 
Italian sienna and burnt umber. 

♦Cyprus Umber. — One of the best grades of 
umber possessing a greenish hue, which is Uked by 
artists. 



78 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Dark Drab.— -French grey, Indian red and^lamj) 
black added to white lead give this colour. 

Dark Lava. — Mix French ochre, Indian red and 
lamp black, and lighten with white lead. 

Dark Oak. — Add French ochre and Venetian 
red to white lead as a base. 

Doe Colour. — This may be produced by mixing 
raw Italian sienna and burnt umber with white lead, 
or French ochre and mineral brown with a little lamp 
black. 

Dove Colour. — White lead, with a little Prussian 
blue and a touch of ivory black will produce an excellent 
dove colour ; but French ochre, Indian red, and lamp 
black may be employed, or a mixture of raw and burnt 
Turkey umber and Italian sienna. 

Drab.— A good drab is made by using burnt 
umber and white lead in the proportion of one of the 
former to ten of the latter, but raw umber and a little 
Venetian red may be used instead. 

*DuTCH Pink. — A useful brown for scenic artists, 
but cannot be used in oil. 

Fawn. — This might also be called deep drab. It 
is produced by tinting white lead with a mixture of 
French ochre, Indian red and lamp black, or raw 
Italian sienna and raw Turkey umber. Another shade 
of fawn is obtained by using eight parts of white lead, 
one part of chrome yellow, one part of Indian red, and 
one part of burnt umber ; or eight parts of white lead, 
two parts of medium chrome yellow, one part Venetian 
red, and one part of burnt umber. 

* Fawn Brown. — A colour somewhat like raw 
Turkey umber, but richer. It was originally intro- 
duced by Messrs. Mander Brothers. 

Fawn, Light. — Tint white with sienna and a 
touch of raw umber. 

Foliage Brown. — Mix burnt umber with raw 
and burnt sienna and lighten with white as may be 
necessary. 




BROWNS. 



79 



*Frencii Ochre.— Thiscoloiir, of course, is bought 
ready made, and it must be observed that, in addition 
to the fineness, the particular tone of this colour is 
very important, especially to grainers. 

Golden Brown. — Sixteen parts of white lead 
are mixed with one of burnt sienna and three parts of 
yellow ochre. A more briUiant colour is obtained by 
substituting zinc oxide for white lead. 

Indian Brown. — Mix equal parts of Indian red, 
lamp black and yellow ochre. 

Lava. — An orange brown lave shade can be got 
by mixing fifteen parts of black, five parts of orange, 
four of yellow, and a very fittle white. 

Leather Brown. — Four parts of yellow ochre, 
three parts of Venetian red, two parts of white lead, 
and one part of blue black give a rich leather brown. 
If a fighter tint is required less black should be used. 
Or the following recipe may be used : mix white with 
three times the quantity of red and the same amount 
of yellow. Some painters use French ochre for a base 
and tint with burnt umber or Venetian red. 

Light Lava. — A mixture of raw umber and raw 
sienna added to white will give this colour. 

Lime Chocolate.— This is a speciafity of Messrs. 
Mander Bros. It is suitable for mixing in water or 
oil and is very useful for all purposes of the decorative 

artist. 

Light Oak.— Add French ochre and Venetian 

red to white as a base. 

Lizard Bronze.— Fifteen parts of black, one of 
orange, five of yellow, and four of green wall produce 
this dark greenish yellow shade. 

*Madder Green. — A reddish brown madder shade 
is produced with one part blue, three parts each of 
orange and red, and six parts black. 

Mahogany. — Mix orange and yellow in equal 
proportions with five times the quantity of black. 

*Mander's Yellow. — An ochre colour made by 



8o 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Messrs. Mander Bros, and intended to take the place 
of Oxford ochre. 

*Mars' Brown. — An artist's colour, also called 
" Verona brown." It is an earth colour and is per- 
manent and owes its colouring to ferric oxide and the 
degree of heat to which it has been subjected. 

Mast Coloured Paint. — The following recipe 
gives good results. Mix twelve parts of genuine dry 
white lead with two parts of French ochre, two parts of 
grey barytes, and one part of genuine oxide of iron. 

Nut Brown. — Equal quantities of red and yellow 
mixed with ten times as much black will give this 
shade. 

Old Wood. — To get this shade mix one part of 
blue and red, two of orange and five of black. 

Olive Brown may be made by mixing three parts 
of burnt umber and one part of lemon chrome yellow ; 
or another shade is given by mixing equal quantities 
of orange and green with about twelve times as much 
black. Some painters add lemon chrome yellow to 
raw umber for a base. Lemon yellow and burnt 
umber gives a richer hue. 

Orange Brown. — Two parts of orange chrome 
yellow mixed with three parts sienna. 

Pomegranate. — A golden brown shade some 
times called by this name is given by mixing three 
parts of red, six of orange, four of yellow with twenty 
parts of black. 

*Prairie Brown. — Mix together equal parts of 
orange chrome and Vandyke brown. 

*PuRPLE Brown. — The name of a well known 
cheap oxide. To imitate mix four parts of dark Indian 
red with one part of ultramarine blue and of lamp 
black. The addition of white lead will usually make 
a more satisfactory tint ; if the shade is too purple, 
a similar quantity of blue should be added ; if too red, 
more black may be used, or a httle yellow added, but 
purple brown pigment is cheap. 



BROWNS. 



8i 



*Raw Sienna. — Siennas are valuable earth colours 
most useful for staining or tinting, but practically 
useless as body colours. The degree of transparency 
determines to some extent the quality. 

*Raw Umber. — A valuable earth colour. Also 
called Cyprus umber. 

*RoMAN Ochre. — Also called " brown ochre." 
Red ochre toned down with black yields a substitute, i 

Rural Brown. — This is a useful and good wearing 
brown and is obtained by mixing three parts of Indian 
red, two parts of lamp black, and one part of chrome 
yellow. 

Russet Brown. — Indian red Ughtened with white 
produces a tint sometimes called by this name. 

Russet. — A very good russet shade is got by 
mixing twenty parts of black, twelve parts of red, ten 
of orange, three of yellow, and five of green. Or 
medium chrome green, raw umber, and a little orange 
chrome yellow added to white as a base will give an 
excellent russet. 

Sandstone. — A tinting colour made by mixing 
raw and burnt umber will produce this colour. 

Seal Brown. — Four parts burnt umber, one part 
golden ochre. 

Septa. — This is a natural colour used chiefly by 
artists and is made from a secretion of the cuttle fish. 
It cannot be imitated and it must not be used in 

oil. 

Seville Brown. — A useful and cheap colour 
originally introduced by Messrs. Mander Bros. It 
may be used both in oil and water. 

Siberian Brown. — Mix together equal parts of 
white lead and raw umber and brighten with a little 
Oxford ochre. 

Sienna Brown.— This colour is variously called 
" sienna brown," " teak brown," and by other names. 
It is made by mixing burnt Italian sienna and French 
ochre with pure zinc. 



82 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Snuff Brown. — French ochre and Indian red 
added to zinc white will produce this colour. Another 
way to produce a snuff colour is to mix four parts of 
medium yellow and two parts of Vandyke brown, or 
burnt umber may be substituted for the Vandyke 
brown if desired. Another snuff colour may be obtained 
by mixing burnt umber and yellow ochre, tinging with 
a little Venetian red. 

Tan. — Mix ten parts of burnt sienna and four 
parts of medium chrome yellow with three parts of raw 
umber. White lead and burnt sienna, to which has 
been added a very little lamp black, will also produce 
a tan colour. A very rich tan colour may be made 
from ochre, burnt Turkey umber and a little orange 
chrome with white lead. 

Thrush Brown. — One part yellow ochre, three 
parts burnt umber, twelve parts white lead. The 
addition of a little black with less umber is some- 
times used. 

*Turkey Umber. — The richest variety of the many 
umbers on the market. 

*Vandyke Brown. — This is an important brown 
to the decorator and is nearly permanent in oil, but 
fades a little in water. It cannot be imitated though 
a little red added to umber produces a colour some- 
what similar to it. It is also called " Cassell 
Earth " and " Cologne Earth." 

*Verona Brown.- — An artist's colour, also called 
" Mars' Brown." 

Vienna Smoke. — The best burnt umber should be 
tinted with lemon chrome yellow and a little Venetian 
red. 

Wallfower Brown. — This beautiful brown may 
be made by a mixture of medium chrome yellow and 
brown lake. Or crimson lake and burnt sienna may 
be mixed with medium chrome. 



GREYS AND GRAYS. 



83 



CHAPTER X. 



GREYS AND GRAYS. 



Although the dictionaries do not usually distinguish 
between the spelling of " grey " and " gray," and 
although many decorators use the two words indis- 
criminately, there is a distinct difference which it is 
both convenient and advisable to recognise. A" grey/' 
is an admixture of black and white, and may vary 
from the smallest quantity of black added to white to 
the other extreme, where there is almost as much black 
as white. Anything between the two would be termed 
a " grey." Examples of this are found in the list 
which follows under heads such as : Dark lead, dark 
slate, lead, etc. When a colour is added to the black 
and white the admixture is called a " gray," provided, 
of course, that the black and white predominate ; for 
example, a French gray is made by tinting white with 
a little ivory or drop black and adding a Httle carmine 
or crimson lake or ultramarine. It will be seen that 
the addition of the lake or ultramarine gives it a 
pecuHar warmth which distinguishes French gray, 
and changes the spelHng from " grey " to " gray." 
Gray drabs are those in which a grey is coloured up to 
produce a yellowish tinge. Black being usually a 
strong tinting colour, care must be taken that it is 
used in moderation, and here the importance of adding 
a small quantity at the time, as already observed, will 
impress itself on the operator. After the shade desired 
has been obtained the colour should be added until 
the desired warmth is arrived at. 



84 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



The experiments advised in previous chapters may 
be continued with advantage in respect to blacks 
which will be found when mixed with white to possess 
certain characteristics which should be known to every 
colour mixer. The blacks which should be experimented 
with are ivory black, vegetable black, lamp black and 
blue black. It will be noticed that pure ivory black, 
for example, gives a distinct bluish cast, while lamp 
black is of a somewhat browner hue. Gas black, 
which is often mixed with other blacks, gives a 
brownish cast. 

Argent. — A reddish gray tint, which can be 
produced by mixing together nine parts of black, 
sixteen of white, one of red, and a little orange. 

Ash Gray. — Lamp black and a little French ochre 
added to white lead give this colour. Another mixture 
is as follows : two parts of burnt sienna, three parts 
of light ultramarine blue, sixty parts of zinc white. 

Black Slate. — Mix together black and Prussian 
blue in the proportion of about thirteen parts of the 
former to one of the latter and add white. 

*Charcoal Gray. — Another name for Blue Black, 
which see. Sometimes it is a special grey prepared 
from charcoal and is then only suitable for water. 

Dark Gray. — Mix eight parts of black, one of 
white and a touch of red or blue to produce this shade ; 
but practically any admixture of black and white 
in which the former predominates and to- which has 
been added a little colour will give a dark gray. 

Dark Lead. — This is a dark grey, being produced 
simply by adding lamp black to white lead. 

Dark Slate. — This also is black added to white. 
The admixture under " Black Slate " would answer. 

*Davy's Grey. — This colour is made by Messrs. 
Winsor and Newton from soot and is recommended 
as a reducing agent as it does not, like the blacks, 
sully the colours with which it is mixed, but gives 
pure and translucid effects and is a capital drier. 




GREYS AND GRAYS. 



85 



Deep Lead. — Black, a little bright blue, and 
Indian red mixed with white lead produces this colour. 

French Gray. — This can be made by tinting white 
with a little ivory or drop black and adding a little 
carmine or crimson lake and ultramarine. This 
produces a very shght violet tinge. White tinted with 
a little ultramarine and Venetian red also gives a good 
French gray. Celestial blue or cobalt may be used 
instead of the ultramarine if desired. Another good 
mixture is made by tinting white lead with one part of 
black and two parts of orange chrome. Perhaps the 
simplest method of all is to thin white with bright 
Indian red. 

Granite. — French ochre and lamp black added 
to white lead produce this colour. 

Graystone. — Mix five parts of black with three 
of white and a three of blue and add a little red. 

Gray Drab. — Mix five parts of black with four of 
white and a little deep chrome yellow. 

Gray (Warm). — See warm gray. 

Green Slate. — Same as lead, but with more 
black and blue. 

Iron Gray. — Mix eight parts of black with two of 
white and a little orange. 

Jasper. — This may be described as " a pepper 
and salt shade." Mix nine parts of black with two of 
white, with a touch of deep chrome. 

Lead. — This is simply a dark gray, and is made 
by adding lamp black to white lead with sufficient blue. 

Light Gray. — Mix. together one part of Prussian 
blue, one part of lamp black, ten parts of white lead. 
By adding more or less white lead a darker or a lighter 
shade may be obtained if required. Another shade is 
obtained by mixing two parts of black, eight parts of 
white and one part of blue. 

Mastic. — This is a dark gray shade. To produce 
it mix twelve parts of black with one of white, rather 
less than one of yellow and just a touch of orange. 




86 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



*MiNERAL Gray. — An artist's colour sometimes 
called " Ultramarine Ash." 

Moss GRAY.^Tint white lead with French ochre, 
a bright green and a Httle lamp black. 

Mouse Colour. — Eleven parts burnt umber, to 
which has been added one part of Prussian blue, 
mixed with about twenty times the bulk of white lead, 
Will give this tint. Another shade may be had by 
mixing sixteen parts of white, three of black and one 
of blue. Some painters tint white with lamp black 
and add a very little Venetian red and burnt umber. 
*Neutral Tint. — An artist's water colour is sold 
under this name. It is somewhat similar to Pa\me's 
Gray, and is made from a mixture of carbon black, 
ochre and French ultramarine. 

Olive Gray. — Three parts of lamp black, one 
part chrome green, with about forty times the quantity 
of white lead, will give this colour, '•- . ■. 

Opal Gray. — One part of burnt sienna, two parts 
of cobalt blue, and thirty parts of zinc white. 

*Payne's Gray. — Is an artist's colour, which may 
be descrii^ed as a gray having a lilac tinge. See 
neutral tint. 

Pearl. — This is the same as French gray, but is 
much lighter. 

Pearl Gray. — Forty parts white lead, five parts 
of vermihon and one part of deep chrome green. Some 
decorators tint white lead with lamp black and call 
that pearl gray. Strictly speaking, however, it should 
be called pearl grey, there being no colour present. 
Six parts of white lead, two parts of Venetian red, and 
one part of lamp black gives a somewhat dark pearl 
gray, but a Hghter tint may easily be obtained by add- 
ing more lead. Ivory black answers equally as well 
as lamp black. 

Quaker Drab. — This greenish gray shade is 
produced by mixing two parts each of yellow and green 
and five parts of white. 



PLATE Vn. 



17 







34 




25 




24 



11 



20 





55 




53 



13 




EXAMPLES OF WASHABLE DISTEMPERS, 



i{ 



# 



GREYS AND GRAYS. 



Sy 



Rustic Drab. — Tint white lead with French 
ochre and lamp black. 

Silver Gray. — Tint white lead with French ochre 
and lamp black, or yellow may be employed instead 
of the ochre if preferred. White lead tinted with a 
httle lamp black and indigo gives an excellent silver 

grav. 

Slate.— See " Dark Slate." 

Smoke Gray. — Tint white lead with French ochre 
and lamp black. 

Steel Gray. — Tint white lead with a mixture of 
lemon chrome and medium chrome and lamp black. 

Stone Gray. — Add black and chrome to white 

lead. 

*Ultramarine Ash. — An artist's colour some- 
times called " Mineral Grey." 

Verdant Grey. — Two parts of oxide zinc and 
one part of terra verte. 

Warm Gray. — Tint white lead with French ochre 
and lamp black or sienna and lamp black. A better 
mixture is produced by taking white as a base and 
adding a little burnt sienna and raw umber with a very 
little burnt umber and a touch of Prussian blue. 





88 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING, 



CHAPTER X. 



WHITES AND BLACKS. 




Although neither blacks or whites can strictly 
be called colours, yet they are both used largely in 
paint mixing. A list of the principal varieties is 
therefore included for reference. 

Blanc Fixe. — Artificial barytes, or sulphate of 
barium. A white pigment which enters largely into the 
composition of Orr's white, lithopone, etc., and is prin- 
cipally used in paper making, and in the manufacture 
of waU-paper colours. 

Charlton White. — See Orr's zinc white. 

Chinese White. — Another name for zinc oxide, 
but applied to the water colour, i.e., zinc ground in 
water. 

Constant White. — Similar to blanc fixe. It 
consists of sulphate of barium ground in water. It 
is not suitable for grinding in oil, being very deficient 
in body. 

Cremnitz White.- — Another name for flake white 
{q.v.) but strictly applied to even a finer preparation 
than ordinary flake white. 

Blanc d' Argent. — See Flake White. 

Dutch White. — Is a mixture of three parts of 
barytes to one part of white lead. Note the difference 
between Dutch white and Dutch process white lead. 

Flake White. — This is the name usually appfied 
to white lead which is specially prepared for the use 
of artists. Chemically, it is basic carbonate of lead, 
or hydro-carbonate of lead. It is not used as a water 



WHITES AND BLACKS. 



89 



colour as it discolours very rapidly. The best flake 
white may be taken as a perfect example of white 
lead, and is often used for comparison. Flake white 
is also known as Cremnitz white, blanc d' argent, and 
silver white. 

Foundation White.— A mixture of high grade 
white lead as used in the manufacture of artists' 
flake white, with another white lead of inferior quality. 
Although a pure white lead, it is not equal in density 
to flake white. It is, however, cheaper, and is some- 
times employed by artists as a foundation on their 

canvases. 

Freeman's White.— A mixture of sulphate of 

lead, zinc oxide, and barytes. 

Miscellaneous Whites.— Zinc oxide is sold 
ground in refined hnseed oil, about thirty-five gallons 
being required to the ton. It is also sold mixed with 
barytes, china clay, sulphate of lime, etc., in varying 
proportions according to the price it is to be sold at. 
The same is true with white lead. Genuine lead 
requires about a gallon of refined linseed oil to one 
cwt. of lead. White barytes in various proportions 
are mixed with it to produce reduced white leads. 

Orr's Zinc White.— A white pigment consisting 
of zinc sulphate and zinc oxide, combined with about 
70 per cent, of artificial barytes or barium sulphate. 
It is largely used in the manufacture of washable 
water paint by wall-paper manufacturers, etc. It 
is substantially the same as Charlton white. 

Oxide of Zinc. — A white pigment which possesses 
the advantage of being much whiter and finer than 
lead, and being also free from poisonous effects. It 
is unaffected by sulphureted hydrogen and other 
gases, and is used in growing quantities in recent years. 

Pearl White. — Basic nitrate of bismuth. 

Permanent White. — Another name for zinc 
oxide when ground in oil. The term is sometimes 
applied to blanc fixe or artificial barytes. 



qo 



PAINT ANDXOLOUR MIXING. 



M\ 



.Process White. — A special white ground in 
water, and essentially the same as blanc fixe {q.v.) 
It is prepared by Messrs. Reeves and vSons, principally 
for use in drawings prepared for reproduction, and is 
permanent. 

Sulphate of Lead is sometimes called Sublimed 
Lead. 

Venice White. — Venice white is made by mixing 
equal parts of barytes and white lead. 

White Lead. — This is the most important white 
used by painters. It is now made in a variety of 
ways, but no method seems to supplant that which is 
known as the old Dutch " stack " process, which is 
carried out strictly by such firms as Walker, Parker 
and Co., Foster, Blackett and Wilson, Alexander 
Fergusson and Co., John Hare and Co., the Mersey 
White Lead Co., and several others. A great deal of 
white lead is imported from the Continent, and it is 
mostly of inferior quality, being as a rule coarsely 
ground. Chemically^ white lead is basic carbonate 
of lead, and an analysis of an average example shows 
that it contains roughly speaking two-thirds of lead 
carbonate, and one-third hydrate. The method of 
testing white lead will be found described under the 
head of testing colours. 

Zinc White. — Pure oxide of zinc, also called 
" Chinese White," " Constant White," and " Per- 
manent White." The term is sometimes applied to 
a class of whites of which Orr's zinc white, Charlton 
white, and lithopone are examples. See also Oxide 
of Zinc. 

Zylothin. — A white manufactured by Messrs. 
Baiss Brothers and Stevenson, Ltd. 

blacks. 

The chief blacks used by decorators and artists 

are lamp black, ivory black, and blue black. Painters 

who realise the desirability of using pure tinting 

colours generally, sometimes seem to think that an\' 



WHITES AND BLACKS. 



91 



black may be used, irrespective of whether it is pure 
or not. This is a great mistake, as it is just as essential 
that blacks be pure, as any other stainers. It may 
be added that some manufacturers make certain of 
their bone blacks, usually sold as " Drop Black " from 
selected parts of the same description of an animal. 
Thus a drop black sold by a well known American 
house is guaranteed to be made only from the skull 
and shin bone of the sheep. 

Animal Black. — This is made by burning various 
animal products. 

Blue Black. — Blue black in water colour is some- 
times called charcoal gray, which see. This black 
should be made from shoots of vine, beech, and other 
woods, but more frequently it is simply a bone black, 
or a lampblack, to which has been added a little indigo. 

Bone Black. — This is made from various bones, 
charred, ground, dry washed, then ground in oil. 

Carbon Black. — This is a very intense black, 
which is rarely sold under that name, but is used 
by some paint manufacturers to give strength to other 
blacks. It is derived from the combustion of petro- 
leum residue. 

Drop Black. — This is another charcoal black sold 
in the form of drops, or irregular cones. Some painters 
appear to consider that this particular form prevents 
the adulteration. As a matter of fact, the drops are 
produced by the pigment dropping slowly from the 
mill as it is ground, and if it were desired to adulterate, 
the material could be added in the mill. 

Frankfort Black. — This is another name for 
drop black. 

Ivory Black. — This is made, as the name implies, 
from charred ivory chips. Most of the so-called ivory 
blacks on the market, however, are a fine grade of bone 
black. 

Lamp Black. — This useful black is made by the 
combustion of waste oils, principally those derived 



92 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



from coal-tar distillation. Lamp black gives as a 
rule, a warm and somewhat brownish hue, and is quite 
permanent both in oil and water. 

Mineral Black.— Mineral black may be described 
as powdered coke. It is used principally in cheap 

black paints. 

Vegetable Black.— Vegetable black may be 

described as a superior class of lamp black. 




BLACK JAPAN IN COLOUR MIXING. 



93 



CHAPTER XL 



COLOURS MADE WITH BLACK JAPAN. 

A large series of most useful colours can be made 
by mixing black japan with ordinary painter's colours 
of bright hue. Black japan is made of asphaltum 
mixed with linseed oil and sometimes gum animi and 
other materials, including red lead and litharge. It 
is not used by house painters to the extent it deserves, 
although it is a great favourite with carriage painters. 
To test the quaUty apply a good coat to a board, 
and when dry look at it in a strong Ught at an angle. 
If it is a solid black it is good quaUty, but if it is either 
a slight greenish or reddish cast it is not reUable. 
When used with other colours, however, this reddish 
or greenish cast is not of so much importance as it is 
when the black japan is to be used by itself. 

The following hst gives a few of the principal 
colours that may be made, but any bright colour 
may be mixed with black japan in varying propor- 
tions to obtain useful colours. The reader who is 
interested in the subject should experiment in the 
same way as he has done with the other ordinary 
colours as described in the foregoing chapters. Take 
a bright red and add a very Uttle black japan ; then 
add to another small sample of red a Httle more black, 
and so on, mixing each and comparing one with the 
other. Next take a bright green and follow the same 
plan, then yellow, blue, etc. Excepting with the very 
light grades^ no great result will be obtained with 



94 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



11 



blues, in fact, ultramarine when added to black japan 
gives a very good solid black. 

Perhaps the most useful colour that can be made 
from black japan is the series of colours suitable for 
scumbling. For example, when finishing relief material 
some very excellent tones may be obtained, especially 
if the colour is thinned with turpentine. Black japan 
has not much body, and if this is desired drop black 
should be added. 

The reader is recommended to mix some of the 
colours named below in the way there indicated, 
and to use them over bright red, buff, or yellow grounds. 
If a coat of colour is given to such a ground and the 
surface is gone over with a dry brush some novel and 
pleasing effects may be produced. Such effects may 
be produced in an even more satisfactory manner by 
using " Matsine " and some of these are shown in 
Plates XII. and XIII. 

Rich Dark Red. — Mix Indian red with a little 
black japan. 

Rich Dark Brown. — Mix crimson lake and black 
■japan, varying the amount of each according to the 
depth required. 

Chocolate Brown. — Mix orange chrome with 
black japan. 

Leather Colour. — This is obtained in exactly 
the same way as chocolate brown, excepting that rather 
more chrome is used. 

Bottle Green. — Mix together Prussian blue, 
Dutch pink and black japan. 

Invisible Green. — Use the same mixture as for 
bottle green but use less japan. 

Light and Dark Reds. — A series to which there 
is no end, may be obtained by mixing either vermilion 
or vermilionette with black japan in varying pro- 
portions. 

Neutral Green. — This is produced by adding 
lemon chrome to a little black japan. 



I 



BLACK JAPAN IN COLOUR MIXING. 95 

Stain for Woodwork. — This can be obtained 
by using any of the foregoing colours sufficiently dark, 
that is with enough black japan added, but taking 
care to thin down according to the depth required. 

Note. — As a rule black japan receives a final 
coat of varnish, but if a dull surface is required it 
may be obtained by giving two coats of japan and 
rubbing down each with felt and pumice stone, taking 
care to use plenty of water. 




fill 



q6 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER XII. 



GLAZING. 



Although the art of glazing in painted work is not 
strictly a part of paint and colour mixing, yet it has^'a 
direct bearing on the subject, because of the effects 
which may be produced by its use. Glazing may be 
defined as a method used in oil painting by which a 
brilliancy of finish is obtained by means of a coat of 
a bright but transparent colour applied over another 
colour having much less brilliancy but much more 
body. 

A simple example of the principle of glazing is 
found in the finish of ordinary green work, which is to 
receive a final bright coat. Here the painter usually 
gives two or more soHd coats of slate or gray colour, 
and upon this paints his green, the slate showing 
through the final green coat to some extent, and a 
good solid green is the result. If green had been used 
from the foundation up, one or two more coats would 
have been needed. 

The following are some of the effects which can be 
produced by means of glazing. A series of beautiful 
reds, such as wine colour, may be obtained by giving 
three coats of Indian red mixed with orange chrome 
in proportions varying according to the finish required, 
and finally giving a glazing coat of crimson lake, 
madder or carmine. 

The reader will readily see that a great variety of 
colours may be obtained by varying the ground ; thus, 



V^'VT^e^^?*'!^?* 



GLAZING. 



97 



a bright orange glazed over with crimson lake gives a 
very bright effect, while either Indian red, Venetian 
red, Tuscan red, or other deep reds may be mixed 
with yellow or used plain as an underground for the 
glazing colour. 

Sometimes a reddish, purplish colour is desired 
in the finish. This can be obtained without difficulty 
on a ground of Indian red mixed with a little orange 
chrome, and a glazing colour of purple madder. 
Various rich effects in blue may be obtained by apply- 
ing a thin wash of Chinese blue over a deep green ground . 
Here again by varying the tone of the ground still 
different results may be obtained. 

Some beautiful peacock greens and blues may be 
obtained on a ground of Brunswick green and chrome, 
by glazing with Prussian blue and lemon chrome. 
Deep amber may be obtained on a ground of middle 
chrome and a glaze of burnt sienna and orange. 

A word may be said here as to the scumbling and 
glazing. Both processes are similar up to a certain 
point, which is that in both cases one colour is placed 
over another of good body. In glazing the top colour 
is transparent ; in scumbling, it is solid, and a portion 
of the top is usually wiped off or removed, so as to 
expose a part of the colour beneath. The simplest 
example which can be given of scumbling is grained 
work, which is really wholly a process of scumbling ; 
but a better example is the finish so often given to 
relief decoration, when a mixture of the brown, say, 
sienna and umber, is applied over a much lighter 
ground finished, say, to an ivory finish. The top 
colour being wiped off at the edges of the relief and 
elsewhere, an antique effect is the result. In ordinary 
plain painting, this effect is sometimes produced in 
panelled work, and some pretty effects may be pro- 
duced. For example, a rich ultramarine blue painted 
over with a thin glazing of yellowish white and partly 
removed, gives a very pretty effect. 



^8 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



It is a little surprising that glazing is not used 
more among decorators than it is. It is true that 
often glazing colours are expensive, such as, for 
instance, carmine and madder, but the actual amount 
of colour used is smah, so that the cost of materials 
when compared to the excellence of result obtained is 
trifling. 

The student of colour effects in decoration is 
recommended to experiment on the lines above 
indicated. Much wiU depend, of course, upon the 
artistic sense of the operator, but by experimenting 
with different transparent colours on various grounds, 
many unexpected and novel effects wiU be produced, 
which become valuable in the execution of high class 
work, particularly so in these days when plain and often 
sombre hued wall coverings are so much in vogue. 

From what has been said it will be clear to the 
reader that some excellent results may be obtained by 
a good colourist by a judicious use of a briUiant 
glazing colour over a more subdued and perhaps 
cheaper colour of good body beneath. But there are 
other effects obtainable by means of an ordinary brush 
and the use of colours, specially adapted for the 
purpose. Graining may belooked upon as a description 
of glazing as already stated, because one colour shows 
through the other. The particular point which it is 
desired now to make clear is very well illustrated by 
Plates XII. and XIII., which show " Matsine " appHed 
-over various coloured surfaces. This material is made 
by the well known paint and varnish house of Messrs. 
Mander Brothers, of Wolverhampton. It is a trans- 
parent, semi-flat thickish material, and is made in 
thirteen colours. The remarkable effects that can be 
obtained by its use need very Httle explanation to the 
practical reader, who has Plates XII. and XIII. before 
him, but it will be seen that the effects are excelle nt 
while it will be found that the labour involved 



trifling. 



IS 



GLAZING. 



99 






It will be observed that with these colours, one 
might sa^^ hundreds of different effects can be pro- 
duced according to the ground employed. If, for 
example, the samples of Spanish mahogany and 
Spanish mahogany on dark ground on the sheets are 
compared, and it is remembered that exactly the same 
" matsine "is used in each case, it will be clear that 
many different effects can be produced with a mini- 
mum of labour. Good colourists of ingenuity can by 
means of this material and a variation in their grounds 
produce novel effects for which they might locally 
obtain a reputation, but even novices could use the 
materia] with advantage, the simplicity of the appli- 
cation being remarkable. 




100 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



GRAINING GROUNDS AND GRAINING COLOURS. 



A considerable difference of opinion exists among 
grainers as to the best method of obtaining their 
grounds. Indeed the most experienced men are by 
no means agreed as to precisely what colour a graining 
ground should be. For this reason the author has 
deemed it desirable in the present edition to give 
several different mixtures from various authorities. 

Maple. — White lead tinted with a very Httle 
vermihon and about an equal quantity of lemon chrome. 
Some prefer yellow ochre only, others ochre and raw 
umber in the proportion of four ounces ochre and one 
ounce umber to thirty pounds of lead. 

Medium Oak. — Add French ochre to white lead 
in the proportions of about one hundred and twenty 
of lead to five of ochre ; add a Httle burnt umber. 

Mahogany, Dark. — Four pounds of medium 
Venetian red, one pound of orange chrome yellow, and 
one pound of burnt umber, or a Uttle less burnt umber 
may be used according to the strength. 

Mahogany, Light. — Mix six pounds of pure 
white lead with one pound medium Venetian red and 
five ounces of burnt umber. 

Light Oak and Birch. — Eighty parts of white 
lead to one of yellow ochre produces a good ground, 
but sixty pounds of white lead, half a pound of French 
ochre, and one ounce of lemon chrome is sometimes 
preferred. 



GRAINING GROUNDS AND COLOURS. loi 

Dark Oak. — Sixty parts of white lead and one 
part of golden ochre may be used, or the following 
mixture if preferred. Six pounds of white lead, one 
pound of French ochre, two ounces medium Venetian 
red and two ounces of burnt umber. 

Satinwood. — Mix six ounces of lemon chrome 
to fifteen pounds of pure white lead and add a little deep 
English vermilion. 

Pollard Oak. — Tint one hundred pounds of 
white lead with twenty-seven pounds of Frepch ochre, 
four pounds of burnt umber, and three and three- 
quarter pounds medium Venetian red, or mix Oxford 
ochre, Venetian red, and white lead in proportions 
to form a rich buff, ground together with equal parts 
of boiled and raw linseed oil and turpentine with the 
necessary driers added, or white lead, chrome yellow 
and vermilion will answer equally well. 

Pitch Pine. — Tint sixty pounds of white lead 
with half pound medium Venetian red, and quarter 
pound of French ochre. 

Italian Walnut. — One pound of French ochre 
mixed with ten pounds of pure white lead and four 
ounces of burnt umber and four ounces medium 
Venetian red give this ground. 

American Walnut. — Thirty pounds pure white 
lead tinted with nine pounds of French ochre, four 
pounds burnt umber, and one pound medium Venetian 
red. 

Antique Oak. — Thirty pounds pure white lead 
tinted with nine pounds of French ochre, four pounds 
burnt umber, and one pound medium Venetian red. 

Ash. — White lead tinted with a very little ver- 
milion and about an equal quantity of lemon chrome. 
Some prefer yellow ochre only, others ochre and raw 
umber in the proportion of four ounces ochre and one 
ounce umber to thirty pounds of lead. 

Birch. — Eighty parts of white lead to one of 
yellow ochre produces a good ground, but sixty pounds 



• • •* 3^ 



• • a 

• 33 :i 



102 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING, 



of white lead, one-eighth of a pound of French ochre 
and one ounce of lemon chrome is sometimes preferred. 

Knotted Oak. — Sixty pounds of white lead, nine 
pounds of French ochre, and three and half pounds 
burnt umber. Same as Pollard Oak. 

Wainscot Oak. — Mix white lead, yellow chrome 
and Venetian red, or white lead, chrome yellow and 
vermilion. Strain the colour before using. 

Bird's Eye Maple. — Add a Httle Oxford ochre 
to white lead or a Httle Venetian red, or Vermilion will 
answer equally well, but only very Httle must be used. 

Birch. — Add a Httle Oxford ochre and a Httle 
Venetian red to white lead, rather more ochre than 
red, to produce a very light buff colour. 

Rosewood and Dark Mahogany. — Four pounds 
of medium Venetian red, one pound of orange chrome 
yellow, and one pound of burnt umber, or a little less 
burnt umber may be used according to the strength. 

The examples of graining grounds given in the 
coloured plate wi'th their mixtures must be taken 
as an average arrived at from comparison of the 
methods employed by different painters in various 
parts of the country. No doubt some readers will 
not agree with them, and wiU think that the colour 
should be Hghter or darker as the case may be. As we 
have explained, the mixtures given are those which may 
be considered an average, and a variation of them may 
be made according to individual taste and judgment. 

Graining Colours. 

Having given the ground colours, we now proceed 
to give those which are used for graining. It will be 
understood that the method of obtaining a graining 
colour varies just as much as it does in the case of the 
ground colour, according to the opinion of the painter. 
The following are given as, what may be safely followed 
to get an average good result. 

Light Oak. — Mix one-third burnt umber with two 
thirds raw sienna, and add a very Httle drop black. 



GRAINING GROUNDS AND COLOURS. 103 



Light Oak and Birch. — Burnt umber lightened 
with white or with Oxford ochre is frequently used. 

Bird's Eye Maple. — Mix raw umber and raw 
sienna with a little Vandyke brown or ivory black. 
Three parts Vandyke brown and one part raw sienna 
will give a brown tint, but this must be modified 
according to whether brown, yellow or grey maple 
is to be imitated. 

AsH.^Same as light oak. 

American Walnut. — Burnt umber to which is 
added a little Vandyke brown will give a good graining 
colour for walnut. 

Mahogany. — Burnt umber, burnt sienna and 
Vandyke brown, with the addition of a little crimson 
lake for over graining, will answer well for mahogany. 

Rosewood. — Vandyke brown, with the addition 
of a little black, should be used, and rose pink may be 
added if desired. 

Mahoagny. — In producing the colour for ordin- 
ary use, such as for instance, Anaglypta or Mncrusta 
or other relief material, mix Venetian red with equal 
parts of burnt umber and burnt sienna, and even 
add a little orange chrome to give brightness. 

Pollard Oak. — Mix burnt umber, Vandyke, raw 
and burnt siennas, and add a little black or ultra- 
marine. Same as wainscot oak, which see. 

Cherry. — Use raw and burnt siennas and raw 
umber. 

Chestnut. — Mix raw sienna, Vandyke and raw 
umber with a very little burnt sienna. 

Wainscot Oak. — Mix burnt and raw Turkey 
umber with a little megilp to prevent running. If 
a dark oak is required add a little black in oil or a 
little purple lake. 

Birch. — Equal parts of Vandyke brown and 
raw sienna. 

Knotted Oak. — Same as wainscot oak. 



H 



104 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER XIV; 



Mixing Paints and Colours on the Manufacturing 

Scale. 

With the object of giving information to that 
large and increasing class of paint users who desire 
to have an intimate knowledge of their materials, 
and who wish from time to time to be in a position 
to manufacture on a larger or smaller scale certain 
of the standard grades of paint materials, this chapter 
is added. 

Although it cannot claim to be absolutely exhaus- 
tive (the subject being an exceedingly wide one) it 
will at the same time afford a certain amount of 
information and point out the main principles of the 
subject under consideration. 

RAW materials USED IN PAINT GRINDING. 

It must not be lost sight of that the manufacture 
or preparation of a finished paint ready for appHcation 
on any surface takes place in a variety of stages. 
The first stage is the preparation of the pigment or 
mixture of pigments, that is the dry powder or powders 
which form the pigmentary base of the paint. The 
preparation of pigments forms an important branch 
of industrial chemistry and is quite outside the scope 
of a volume Hke the present. The manufacture of 
dry white lead, dry zinc white, the oxides of iron, 
carbon black, ultramarine blue, the chromes, Chinese 
and Prussian blue, emerald, Brunswick, Bronze and 
other greens, lakes, etc., form part of this wide subject 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 105 

The second stage in ready mixed paint manufac- 
ture is to reduce the before mentioned pigments or 
powders to the paste form by grinding them in a suit- 
able medium. In the enormous majority of cases 
that medium is raw Unseed oil, but occasionally and 
for special purposes other media are employed instead 
of this. 

This branch of the subject, that is the mixing 
and grinding of the dry pigments with oil to form a 
paste, is termed paint grinding, and is a branch of the 
industry which is carried on by most of the large 
manufacturing paint houses, many of whom do not 
themselves make the dry pigments. 

The final stage is the incorporation of the stiff or 
paste paint with suitable vehicles or media to form 
ready mixed or prepared paints as used by the painter 
and decorator. In our present more or less restricted 
view of the subject we will commence with the work 
performed by the ordinary paint grinder, and we wil) 
in the first instance turn our attention to raw materials 
used in paint grinding. 

These are, as we have indicated above, the base 
dry colours, but they also include many other materials 
introduced into the paint for specific purposes. One 
of the most important purposes is to cheapen the 
product and in such cases they are termed adulterants. 
Sometimes, however, materials are introduced into the 
paint not for the purpose of cheapening or adulterating 
the finished article, but in order to communicate to it 
certain specific properties which will increase its value 
as a decorative or protective agent. The following 
fist includes most of the materials used in paint grind- 
ing apart from the true pigment which is the base 
of the particular paint which it is desired to produce, 
viz. : 

Barytes. — A heavy white or greyish white natural 
mineral of crystalline texture consisting principally 
of sulphate of barium. This article varies in quality 



io6 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

and price according* to its whiteness and freedom from 
earthy and irony matter. The finest grades are used 
to adulterate white lead, white zinc, and similar high 
class white pigments. The commoner varieties are 
introduced as cheapening agentsinto putty and coloured 
paints generally. It has been termedthe paint grinder's 
friend, and it is equally his enemy according to the 
point of view. Its price varies from 35s. to £4 per 
ton, and a pecuUarity of the material is that it requires 
a very small proportion of oil to reduce it to the con- 
sistency of paste. 

Whiting or Paris White. — This well known 
material (which is almost pure carbonate of lime) is 
used largely in cheap paints to neutralise the heavy and 
porous nature of barytes ; it is more opaque than 
barytes but it is much hghter and absorbs a much 
larger proportion of oil. It is, as is well known, the 
base of common distempers and a pecuUarity of the 
article is that although in a water medium it dries out 
very white, in an oil medium it assumes a yellow 
colour. Putty is composed largely of whiting. 

Gypsum or Terra Alba.— This material is not 
much used in Britain in paint making but enjoys a wide 
use in America, and for certain kinds of paint it has 
much to recommend it. If it is adopted care should be 
taken that it should only be employed in the hydrated 
form, as if it is not used in this form it rapidly absorbs 
moisture from the air and sets into a hard impervious 
mass, acting precisely as the well known plaster of 
Paris'. Terra alba of good quality is a very white 
pigment and amalgamates well with certain of the 
hghter oxide of iron colours, ochres, etc., forming 
protective paints of good quaUty. 

China Clay.— This article is never used m large 
quantities in paint grinding, but a small proportion 
is sometimes introduced into paints of a spongy or 
open texture in order to give coherence. 

A word or two must be added with regard to the 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 107 

base pigments with which the foregoing cheapeners 
or adulterants are mixed. Little need be said of white 
lead or white zinc, as to completely treat of these well 
known articles would cover many pages. The following 
brief notes, however, on the chief colour pigments 
may be of use, and one remark applies to them all, viz., 
that in manufacturing paints it is the truest economy 
to purchase the very best pigments that can be obtained. 
By hesi we mean the strongest and brightest, and these 
properties should in every case be carefully tested 
against a standard sample. 

Yellow Pigments. — The ochres are natural 
earths, and are valued in proportion to their purity of 
yellow tone, staining power and freedom from materials 
such as chrome or cheap lakes introduced with the 
object of giving a fictitious yellow tone. A good 
quality grinding ochre will fetch a very high price 
and it is one of the most expensive colours to grind, 
requiring to be passed through the rollers many times 
before the grit is finally disposed of. The chromes 
are well known yellow pigments and are seldom ground 
otherwise than pure. 

Red Pigments. — These are obtained in endless 
variety, the most important being the iron reds, 
the best of which is oxide of iron. Thus we have 
Indian red, Venetian red, bright oxide reds, purple 
browns and purple oxides and many other oxide colours 
known under fancy names. In purchasing these for 
grinding purposes they should be examined for staining 
power and also for the tone of shade produced on 
reduction with white lead and whiting respectively. 
The colour produced on reduction with whiting is 
important for the reason that cheaper grades of paint 
would be produced in this way and often an unpleasing 
tint of red is produced on reduction. Freedom from 
grit is also an important feature. It is a great mistake 
to -purchase a red which is difficult to grind even 
although it is otherwise cheap, as the saving in price 



io8 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



will be rapidly neutralised in the subsequent grinding 
operations. Other red pigments are the red lakes 
and so-called fast reds and aniline reds, which are 
used in comparatively small proportions for special 
decorative purposes. 

Black Pigments. — The most important is perhaps 
ivory black and a large proportion of black sold under 
this name to-day is not ivory black at all but simply 
hone black, the production of ivory black being very 
hmited. Other blacks are vegetable or lamp black and 
gas or carbon black. The latter possesses great staining 
power and is useful in giving the requisite amount of 
blackness to black paints which, paradoxical as it 
may seem, always contain a large amount of white 
material. 

Blue Pigments used by the paint grinder are 
ultramarine blue, to a very Hmited extent, and more 
largely Prussian blue usually in one or other of its 
reduced derivatives, Brunswick blue (which is Prussian 
blue struck on a base of terra alba) or celestial blue, 
(which is composed of Prussian blue struck on a base 
of barytes). The enormous staining power of Prussian 
blue will be understood when it is said that a very 
excellent and strong staining Brunswick blue can be 
produced by striking Prussian blue on terra alba in 
the proportions of I2| per cent, of Prussian blue to 
87^ per cent, of white base. 

Green Pigments. — The great bulk of these consist 
of the well known Brunswick greens which really 
consist of a mixture of chrome yellow, Prussian blue, 
and white base, the latter being usually barytes. In 
the case of greens it is of the utmost importance to use 
a very pure and strong staining colour, otherwise it is 
impossible to reduce them with economy in the mixing 
and grinding.. 

Having disposed of the dry colours used in the 
process of paint manufacture we now turn to the oil 
employed to reduce the dry colour to the paste or 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 109 

stiff form. Linseed oil is the only oil of practical 
importance in this connection, although for artists' 
colours some other of the drying oils are occasionally 
used. The proportion of oil absorbed by the various 
pigments is a matter of great consequence to the 
paint grinder, and we give the following table compiled 
by Mr. J. Cruickshank Smith, B.Sc, F.C.S., the figures 
in which represent the number of parts of oil by weight 
usually required by 100 parts by weight of the 
respective dry colours. 

Table of Quantity of Linseed Oil Required 
IN Grinding Pigments. 

White Lead (English stack made) ... 
„ (Chamber process) 

Oxide of Zinc 

Sulphide Zinc White 

Sulphate of Lead (Glasgow White) ... 

Best White Barytes 

Second Quality Barytes 
Common Grade Barytes 
Paris White 
Oxide of Iron Pigments 
Fine Italian Ochre 
Strong Staining Ochres 
Strong Staining Siennas 
Fine Turkey Umbers ... 

Vandyke Brown 

Vegetable and Carbon Black 

Pure Chromes ... 
Ultramarine 
Lime Blue 

Pure Prussian Blue 

Brunswick Blue 
Celestial Blue ... 
Brunswick Green 



6^-7. 
7i-S. 
20 — 21. 
14 — 16. 
8. 

7. 

8. 

9 — 10. 

21—23. 

18 — 24. 

87. 

30 and upwards. 

95 

85 

95 

95 

12, 

33- 
25. 

100. 

16. 

12. 

15 — 20. 



The question of oil is all important in paint grinding 
as the cost of the oil is one of the most serious con- 
siderations. It is therefore one of the problems which 
face the paint grinder to adjust his paint mixing in 
such a manner as to necessitate the introduction of 
the smallest possible quantity of oil in the grinding. 



Pfe-fekfefei 



no PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

At the same time he has to consider that unless there 
is an adequate proportion of oil present he cannot get 
the paint to mix properly and therefore he has to 
hit upon the happy medium. The general rule is that 
the heavier the pigment the less oil it absorbs, and a 
reference to the foregoing table will show that this 
rule is followed pretty closely, white lead and barytes, 
which are the heaviest pigments, absorbing the smallest 
proportion of oil, while pigments like sienna and 
Vandyke brown, which are very Hght, require almost 
their own weight of oil. A further important point 
is that damp pigments always require more oil to 
grind them than dry pigments. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the use of cheap 
or indifferent linseed oil cheapens the cost of the paint, 
because it does not do so. Oil containing a large pro- 
portion of albuminous matter does not go so far as a 
clear bright oil. Therefore attention ought to be 
paid to the quaUty of the oil purchased and also to 
the storage tanks to see that they are free from sludge 
and foots. 

The last ingredient we have to revert to in the 
case of stiff paints is what is sometimes termed the 
" binder." This material may vary in nature and it is 
not always required. Its object is to enable the oil 
to retain the pigment in suspension. Thus, if the 
paint grinder is grinding a somewhat low quality of 
Brunswick green, he finds that after the paint is ground 
and placed in the kegs, the solid matter is apt to settle 
down with the result that the lower part of the keg 
contains a hard mass of pigment and the upper part 
a sloppy mass of mixed oil and pigment. To avoid 
this inconvenience which at once results in complaints 
he introduces into the paint in the process of mixing 
something of a tenacious viscous nature which helps 
the oil and pigment to remain incorporated together. 
Boiled oil is sometimes used for this purpose and some 
old fashioned grinders use a large proportion of 



^^- 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING, iii 

boiled oil in their paint mixing. This practice, how- 
ever, is rapidly dying out and a better material to use 
is a small proportion of varnish foots, say 7 to 14 
lbs. to the cwt., but care must be taken that the 
quantity is not too large, otherwise the whole of the 
paint will set hard in the kegs. Before finally adopting 
any particular batch of varnish foots or other similar 
material as a binder it should be tried on a small scale, 
as these materials often contain large quantities of 
active driers and other chemical matters which act in 
peculiar ways on the paint. 

Machinery and Plant Used in Paint Grinding. 

After a paint grinder has decided on the relative 
proportions of colour, cheapening materials, oil and 
binder, he has to set about amalgamating these into 
the stiff paint and the first process is that of mixing. 

Paint mixing machines are of various types 
including : — 

(i) The old fashioned pug mill, which consists 
of a vertical cyUnder with revolving spindle carrying 
usually six knives set at right angles to this spindle 
which, when the latter rotates, cut through the mass 
of paint and gradually mix it. 

(2) The vertical mixer which consists essentially 
of a horizontal box or chamber containing blades 
which revolve and cut the paint up after the fashion 
of a dough mixing machine used by bakers. 

(3) The improved pan mill of which that perfected 
by Messrs. Torrence, of Bitton, may be taken as a 
type. This latter mill possesses many attractions and 
is especially useful where mixing has to be done quickly, 
as owing to the construction of this mill the paint 
undergoes a good deal of grinding as well as mixing. 

The second class of mill referred to above is only 
useful for fairly soft paints. For very stiff paints the 
first class is said by some authorities to give the best 
results. The process of mixing paints in any of the 



112 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



above mentioned machines is not altogether a hap- 
hazard process. For example, in mixing tinted paint 
it does not do to throw in all the white colour first 
and then dump the staining material in towards the 
end of the operation. As a matter of fact the best 
results are got by mixing up the tinting matter separ- 
ately in another mill and introducing it in the mixed 
state into the mixture containing the white colour. 
This avoids the formation of lumps and irregular 
patches of material which would otherwise manifest 
themselves when the mixture was placed upon the 
grinding rollers. 

In making up tinted paints on a large scale the 
order in which the various tinting materials are added 
is somewhat important, and if this be not attended 
to the result is frequently that a considerable pro- 
portion of material is wasted. In this connection the 
author strongly recommends anyone who proposes 
engaging in the manufacture of tinted paints to under- 
take a fairly exhaustive course of study of the actual 
tinting and staining properties of the pigments com- 
monly used by paint grinders. This side of the 
question is very frequently left somewhat severely 
alone with the result that it is only after numerous 
failures and spoiled batches that the would-be manu- 
facturer comes to appreciate the relative strengths 
and tinting properties of the raw materials which he 
is using. A very useful course of study is to take in 
rotation the various staining pigments commonly 
used by paint grinders, most of which we have already 
dealt with in the foregoing paragraphs, and to reduce 
these in varying proportions with white lead, white 
zinc and whiting. In this way a very fair idea is 
obtained of the variety of shades obtained b}' these 
strong staining materials. 

In order to indicate a few of the points that have 
to be attended to in making up tinted paints in general 
we may discuss in some detail the manufacture of 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 113 



two typical tinted paints, viz. : Slate colour and mast 
colour paints. 

We will suppose that the paint manufacturer is 
required to produce a slate colour paint in the stiff 
form, and we will imagine that the exact tint to which 
his paint is to conform has been given him. Let us 
suppose that this tint is of a somewhat pale colour 
of the nature of the so-called " invisible grey " used 
in the British Navy. Now, every practical man who 
has gone through a course of training in the staining 
properties of pigments will see by inspection of this 
colour that it contains four elements, viz. : white, 
black, blue and red, and common sense united with 
a little practical experience will show him that it 
will be fatal to the ultimate result if he adds too much 
black to begin with. He will know by practical 
trial and experience that the most sensitive or easily 
affected of the four elements just mentioned is blue, 
and he will be proceeding on correct lines if he adds 
the blue tinting material first. Let him therefore 
select his white base, which in the case of a somewhat 
" clean " or bright looking colour would be oxide of 
zinc (either pure or reduced according to the required 
cost with terra alba). Let him then add such a 
quantity of ultramarine blue as will bring the paint 
to the same depth of colour as the given sample. By 
then adding little by little small proportions of black 
the brightness of the blue will be " killed " and the 
slate colour or greyness will gradually manifest itself. 
The object of the red is to neutralise the native " cold- 
ness " of the blue and black and the addition of a 
very small quantity of Indian red will probably suffice 
to give the necessary cast of colour. The proportion 
of Indian red will be very small and will vary accord- 
ing to the colour of the ultramarine used as certain 
grades of ultramarine possess in themselves a dis- 
tinctly reddish tone. 

Suppose for the moment the paint grinder were 



» t^MWww 



114 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



to begin by adding black to the white base. He 
would in all probability overstep the mark and would 
obtain a dark grey colour which would require the 
addition of a very large proportion of blue and pro- 
bably of white as well to bring it to the required slate 
tone. The general rule, therefore, in adding a mixture 
of tinting colour to a white base to produce tinted 
paints, is to commence with the more sensitive and 
delicate ones and to add the stronger and darker ones 
last and in the smallest proportions. 




Fig. 8. 

Another example of a tinted paint and the method 
of its product on is mast colour. In this case the 
white base will in all probabiHty be white lead, con- 
taining a greater or smaller proportion of whiting, 
and, if the quality is a somewhat low one, a proportion 
of second grade barytes as well. The tinting colours 
will be Oxford ochre, Venetian red, burnt seinna, and 
orange chrome. In this case the practical man will 
see at once that the ochre is the predominant material 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 115 

and he therefore commences by adding a sufficiency 
of this pigment. He then adds sufficient burnt sienna 
to give the richness and density to the ochre ; this 
he then follows with Venetian red, or in the case of 
some low grades he would probably use Venetian 
red] right through in place of sienna. Finally, he 
livens the whole up by means of orange chrome. 

One of the chief points in paint grinding is to 




Fig 9. 

judge the proportion of oil that should be added in 
the mixing process. Frequently the material becomes 
somewhat heated with the result that it works 
softer than it ultimately becomes when cold ; this has 
to be allowed for. 

Another type of machine largely used for the 
mixing of paint bodies and the thinning down of same 
is the " Universal Kneading and Mixing Machines," 



ii6 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



made by Werner, Pfleiderer and Perkins, Ltd. These 
have been forverymanyyearsadoptedby leading paint 

and enamel manufact- 
urers. As will be seen 
from the illustrations these 
machines consist of a 
trough or container 
equipped with one or two 
horizontal blades, the 
action being such as to 
produce themostthorough 
and perfect mixing obtain- 
able, and in such rnanner 
as to prevent any possi- 
bility of settling or strati- 
fication. Fig. 8 shows 
the heavier type as used 
for white lead and zinc 
bodies, etc., whilst Fig. 9 
illustrates the lighter type 
down, stirring, etc. The 
Kneader is also extensively 
of the finest grades of 




Fig. 10, 



in use for thinning 

"Universal "type of 

used in the manufacture 

putty. These machines are, where required, supplied 

with arrangements for emptying through the bottom 

of the trough instead of by the tilting of it. 

In the preparation of fine colours and paints in 
oil, turpentine or water, it is often most economical 
to mix and sieve the pig- 
ments while they are in the 
form of a dry powder and 
before they are ground in 
their medium. For this 
purpose a very useful 
machine is the " Rapid " 
Sifter and Mixer, manufact- 
ured by Messrs. Wm. Gardner and Sons (Gloucester), 
Ltd.,andisillustratedinFig.io. It may be said to con- 




FlG. II. 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 117 

sist of two chambers, one above the other. In the top 
chamber into which the powdered pigments are intro- 
duced is a finely meshed sieve of silk which surrounds 
a specially constructed spiral brush. This brush very 
quickly breaks up tiny lumps while the mechanism 
causes the finely divided powder to pass through the 
sieve and drop to the chamber below. At the same 
time any foreign matter, such as small stones, sticks 
and irreducible lumps, are automatically thrown out 
of the machine through a spout provided for the 
purpose. In the mixing or blending chamber below 
to which the finely sifted powder has descended, an 
agitator is provided by which the blending and mixing 
is very thoroughly effected in a short time. A second 
form of the same machine is shown in Fig. 11. 

A still further variety in construction is 
called the "Quick Change " powder dresser. In this 
machine the sieve can be changed so that several 
powders of varying degrees of fineness can be dealt 
with in the same day. It can also be adjusted 
in such a manner that two different mixings can be 
produced at the same time. 

After mixing, the paint is transferred to the 
grinding rollers which now almost invariably consist 
of what is known as a three-roller horizontal mill. 
These mills have been brought to a state of great 
perfection, and by the use of suitable mixing apparatus 
the amount of grinding is reduced to a minimum. 
Sometimes two, three or more grinding mills are worked 
in series and the paint falls from one to the other 
becoming still further reduced at each operation. 
As an indication of the difference in grinding required 
by different pigments we may remark that white 
lead is usually considered to require one grinding, 
white zinc two grindings, ochre staining colours three 
grindings, sienna and some of the harder staining 
colours, as well as colours for coachmakers and printers' 
inks four to six grindings. 



ii8 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



For more minute information of the grinding 
of paints we refer the reader to the " Manufacture of 
Paint," by J. Cruickshank Smith, B.Sc., F.C.S., 
pubhshed by Scott, Greenwood and Son, London. 

Prepared Paints. 

These are, as we have already indicated, the final 
stage in the manufacture of paint. The stiff paint 
prepared as already described is placed in large mixers 
either of a horizontal or vertical type where the proper 
proportions of oil, turpentine, driers and sometimes 
varnish are added. The machinery is set in motion 
and the mixture is thoroughly beaten up by means of 
stirrers for several hours, at the end of which time the 
ingredients have become thoroughly amalgamated. 
Anyone who has seen a paint mixing mill of this des- 
cription will at once disabuse himself of any idea he may 
have possessed that a painter working with a domestic 
pail and a wooden paddle is equipped with an ideal 
paint mixing plant. The proportions of the various 
ingredients employed by manufacturers of prepared 
paints vary greatly. Much depends upon the con- 
sistency of the stiff paint used, the softer this is the 
more easily it is worked up, and many of the ready 
mixed paint manufacturers are very skilful in making 
up their stiff paint so as to require the minimum 
amount of thinning with oil and turps, which are 
expensive ingredients. Then again the quaUty of the 
stiff paint has considerable influence ; the better the 
quahty the more thinning material the paint will stand. 
Obviously, if the paint is of very inferior r-uality the 
addition of the normal quantity of liquid thinners 
would render the paint practically useless as a covering 
material. While, therefore, the dominating agent is 
the nature of the pigment in the stiff paint it is only 
practical trial with the particular stiff paint that is 
to be employed, which will indicate exactly how much 
thinners is required. As to the relative proportion 



PLATE VIII. 



1 


BURNT OXFORD OCHRE 




PALE NAIAD GREEN 


ROYAL BLUE 




VANDYKE RED 


PISTACHIO GREEN 




CHESTNUT RED 


APPLE GREEN 




NYANZA PURPLE 


IBIS RED 




EGYPTIAN BLUE 


DEEP LIME BLUE 




JADE GREEN 


GOLDEN YELLOW 




GERANIUM RED 


DAMSON BROWN 




GROTTO BLUE 


1 



NON-POISONOUS COLOURS FOR DISTEMPER. 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 119 



of oil and turpentine, this also is a matter which will 
vary according to the necessities ol the case. For 
ordinary outside use one part of turpentine to three 
parts of oil is ample, and the probability is that when 
turps reaches a high price this proportion will [be 
reduced, if possible. The question has sometimes 
been discussed whether really glossy paint can be 
made without the addition of varnish. Trial has 
proved that this can be done by using a good bodied 
boiled oil in place of a proportion of the linseed oil. 
Indeed the introduction of varnish into prepared 
paint has little effect upon the gloss, although it has 
a considerable influence on the wear and vitality , of 
the paint. 

The whole question of the advisability of employ- 
ing varnish as an ingredient of ready mixed paints 
is one on which contrary views are entertained, and 
if the question is asked whether or not varnish is a 
satisfactory ingredient of these products, the answer 
is that it all depends upon the nature of the varnish 
and the composition of the paint. Assuming that the 
paint is made of the very best materials, carefully 
selected and prepared in the best possible manner, and 
assuming also that the varnish is selected with due 
regard to its composition and the composition of the 
ingredients with which it will be combined, then there 
can be no doubt that the introduction of a material 
containing, as varnish does, a proportion of gum resin 
will add materially to the life and protective qualities 
of the paint. On the other hand, if paint is manu- 
factured to meet competition and if the temporary 
appearance of the painted surface rather than the 
composition of the paint itself has been the object of 
the paint manufacturer's attention ; if, further, the 
composition of the varnish is a more or less unknown 
quantity, then it may unhesitatingly be said that 
varnish will do little good to the finished paint and 
may in many cases be a source of serious trouble. 



120 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



A varnish which contains resin should never be used 
in mixed paints. Not only so, but many of the cheaper 
gums used as substitutes for the finer copals are not 
suited for amalgamation with pigments. Again, the 
presence of certain dry materials in paint often exer- 
cises very curious results on materials of a varnish 
nature, causing what is known as " jellying " and other 
disastrous results. There is no more technical or 
intricate branch of varnish manufacture than the 
preparation of what are known as mixing varnishes, 
that is to say, varnishes suitable for admixture with 
paints and pigments, and unless the paint manu- 
facturer is prepared to spend some time in the selec- 
tion of suitable varnishes he will be well advised to 
leave them out of the question altogether in the 
fabrication of prepared paints for decorators' use. 
Of course, in such articles as varnish paints, anti- 
fouling compositions, etc., varnish of some kind is 
the base of the whole thing. 

The recent boom in turpentine substitutes has 
raised the question whether these could be safely 
used in ordinary prepared paint. The balance of 
evidence at the present time appears to show that 
assuming due care and caution have been exercised 
in the purchase of a turpentine substitute, very good 
paints can be prepared containing these articles, pro- 
vided there is plenty of oil in the paint as well ; that 
is to say that while a very good glossy paint can be 
produced containing a turpentine substitute, it would 
not be so easy to produce a thoroughly good fiat 
paint. 

The question of driers in ready mixed paint also 
deserves attention. Paint manufacturers as a rule 
use nothing but paste driers, and these are usually 
added in a considerable quantity for two reasons. 

(i) Because the driers employed are usually very 
cheap and tend to cheapen the paint. 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 121 

(2) Because of all the complaints to which the 
paint manufacturer is exposed that of bad drying in 
paint is most troublesome, and so long as he gets his 
paint to dry he is not so particular about other 
features. 

Of late years manufacturers of prepared paints 
for special purposes, in particular protective paints, 
have been adopting the principle of using liquid driers, 
but detailed information concerning their use and 
proportions is hardly within the scope of this 
work. 

The following are authenticated proportions which 
have been employed in Britain in the manufacture of 
prepared paints. The qualities, it will be observed, 
are by no means first rate, but lepresent very fairly 
what may be described as ordinary commercial quali- 
ties of tinned paints suitable for re-sale. It is, of 
course, in the power of the manufacturer to vary these 
mixings according to his actual requirements. 



Ground Purple Brown (for R.M. Paint). 



cwts. 


qrs. 


lbs. 






2 





Dry Purple Brown 




2 





Paris White. 


2 


2 





No. 2 Barytes. 






21 


Boiled Oil Foots. 






7 


Varnish Foots. 






20 


Raw Linseed Oil. 


Ground 


Brunswig 


K Green (for R.M. 1 


cwts 


qrs. 


lbs. 






I 


21 


Dry Green (pure). 




3 


21 


Paris White. 


3 


2 





No. 2 Barytes. 






14 


Boiled Oil Foots. 






14 


Varnish Foots. 




I 


21 


Raw Linseed Oil. 



Paint). 



122 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

Ground White Lead (for R.M. Paint). 

cwts. qrs. lbs. 

400 Dry White Lead. 

600 Best Barytes. 

2 16 Refined Linseed Oil. 

Composition of one Ton of R.M. Paint on the 

Basis of a Variety of vShades. 



cwts . 


qrs. 


lbs. 




14 


I 


15 


Stiff Paint. 


2 


2 


22 


Paste Driers. 


2 


I 





Raw Linseed Oil. 




2 


19 


American Turpentine 



20 



o 



o 



With regard to the cost of prepared paint per 
ton, the following is a skeleton cost sheet, including 
the various items which must be included in such a 
statement. 



Cost of R.M. Paint Per Ton 



i 
o 





including 




o 

o 
and 
o 



s. 

o 



o 






o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 



Materials as above . . 
Cost of manufacture of stiff paint 
„ of R.M. paint, 
fining and labelHng 
tins . . 
,, labels 

„ packing 

supervision, office, travelling, 
other expenses . . 

It will of course be borne in mind that the cost 
of tins is a very important item in the above. Tins 
are usually quoted at so much per gross, therefore 
in the case of paint packed in one pound tins there 
will be 2240 tins per ton, in the case of paint packed 



o 



MANUFACTURING SCALE OF MIXING. 



123 



in two pound tins 1120, and so on, according to the 
size of the various packages. It has been stated by 
a prominent ready mixed paint manufacturer that he 
considers the cost of manufacturing ready mixed 
paints exclusive of materials and packages, but includ- 
ing labour and packing, at about £8 per ton on an 
average of all sizes of packages. 




124 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER XV. 



\^/ATER Paints, Distempers, Etc. 

For many years distemper colours have been used 
by painters with more or less success, a large variety 
of colours being available for interior decoration. In 
most cases such distemper colours consist of whiting 
mixed with colour in the proper proportion to produce 
the desired tint, size being added by the painter to 
bind the particles together and prevent the colour 
rubbing off when the hand or clothes are brought in 
contact with it. Of late years various washable water 
paints have been put upon the market in a large 
variety of colours and have gained very considerably 
in popularity. Not only are they suitable for inside 
work, but in certain cases they can be employed also 
on the exterior of buildings. Further than this, some 
of the water paints may be painted or varnished over 
so as to produce the effect of oil paint at a considerable 
reduction in price. The varnish may be applied 
directly to the distemper or a coat of size may be 
given first. In the latter case there will be little 
or no darkening of the colour when the varnish is 

applied. 

Hall's well known sanitary washable distemper 
was chosen for illustrating in a practical manner 
the effect of varnish as appHed to their material, and 
the result will be found in Plate VI., which is more 
fully described on page i8i. 



WATER PAINTS, DISTEMPERS, ETC. 125 



The coloured plates, numbered VI., VII., VIII., 
IX., and X., show many examples of different water 
paints, some of them of totally different character, and 
it is hoped that these will be of service to the reader 
in selecting suitable colours for his work. Alabastine, 
shown on Plates IX. and X., as fully explained under 
the heading of " Description of Coloured Plates," is 
a class of distemper which is manufactured in a number 
of colours, and supphed in the form of powder. 

Some of these washable distempers shown on 
the Plates have a world wide reputation. The author 
feels that he should limit himself here to a description 
of the use of these water paints, leaving the reader to 
investigate further as to their respective merits. One 
point, however, is worth especial note, and that is each 
manufacturer issues a book of colours or tints which he 
keeps in stock, and these are freely supplied to painters 
on request. A small selection of such books will be 
found of the utmost use in selecting the particular 
colour required for any job, whether it be a simple 
cottage or a town hall. Indeed, such books are exceed- 
ingly useful to show to one's customer, who can quickly 
make a selection from them. The latest plan is to 
supply the books with the samples divided through 
the centre so that harmonious contrasting colours can 
be selected. 

The use of water paints may be divided con- 
veniently into three parts, (i) for interior decorations ; 
(2), as a substitute for oil paints ; and (3), to prevent 
blistering. We may take these three headings seriatim. 
For interior work they produce, if properly applied, 
very beautiful fiat surfaces of light or bright colours as 
may be desired. After a little practice they are not 
at all difficult to apply, so as to get a flat surface 
without laps. 

Very charming results are obtained by using a 
different coloured frieze to that of filling and stencilling 
on a simple ornament. The mistake that many painters 



126 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



make is to suppose that this class of paint possesses 
more body than it has, or to put it in another way, 
because these paints have an excellent body, some 
painters try to produce with one coat the results that 
can only be reasonably expected with two. Whiting 
is not always the base of these paints, frequently 
hthopone or zinc white is employed, it being well known 
that zinc white acts well either in water or oil. 

As to how far these paints will go, Mr. J. Cruick- 
SHANK Smith gives the following figures : — ^For one 
hundredweight, one coat, 400 yards ; two coats 
200 yards, and three coats, 120 yards. One of 
the most used water paints on the market is mixed 
with a special hquid supphed by the manufacturer, 
and the painter should be cautioned against making 
his mixture too thin, and also against adding 
anything (such as water), other than the ingredients 
recommended by the manufacturers. In every case 
exphcit directions are given by the makers as to the 
use of these paints, and the painter has only himself 
to blame if he departs from them. We give below a few 
recipes for distempers and water paints arranged by 
Mr. W. G. Scott, the eminent American writer on 
paints and painting. 

Wall Suction Size. 

[a) 2 lb. white glue ; soak four hours in f gallon 
cold water ; dissolve on water bath. 

(&) 1 lb. pulv. alum ; dissolve in I gallon boiUng 
water. 

(c) 1 lb. bar soap (shaved fine) ; dissolve in | 
gallon boiling water. 

Into solution {a) pour 2 gallons of boiling water, 
add solution [b], then (c) ; stir well, then add 8 lb. 
of plaster of Paris. This will stop suction on the 
coarsest sand wall, and the surface eventually becomes 
as hard as flint. 



WATER PAINTS, DISTEMPERS, ETC. 127 



Size for Distemper. 

[a) il lb. soda (carbonate of soda) ; | lb. borax ; 
dissolve in 3 gallons boiling water ; add a little at a 
time, 51b. pulv. resin ; continue the heat until the resin 

is dissolved. 

[b) 5 lb. white glue ; soak four hours in 5 gallons 
cold water ; dissolve and add 10 gallons hot water. 

Mix {a) with (&). 

Insoluble Wall Finish for Plaster Walls. 

(a) 4 oz. chloride of zinc ; dissolve in | gallon hot 

water. 

{b) 2 oz. borax ; dissolve in 4 fi. oz. hot water. 

[c) 2 oz. cream of tartar ; 8 oz. common starch ; 
16 oz. zinc oxide ; mix with 1 gallon cold water. 

Mix {a) and {b), boil and add (c), stirring a few 
minutes, then apply hot. 

Dextrine Binder for Water Colours. 
(a) 8 oz. yellow dextrine ; dissolve in 16 fl. oz. 

cold water. 

(6) 10 grains thymol ; dissolve in 8 fl. oz.hot water. 

Mix (a) and (&). 

Starch Binder. 

(a) 3 oz. common starch beat up with 6 fl. oz. cold 
water, then pour into 64 fl. oz. boiling water. 

{b) 2 oz. gum arable ; 4 oz. pulv. borax ; dissolve 
in 16 fl. oz. cold water. 

Mix [a] with {b). 

DISTEMPER AND WHITEWASH. 

Common Distemper. 

{a) 1 lb. white glue, soak four hours in ^ gallon 
cold water ; dissolve on a water bath. 

(&) 16 lb. dry Paris white or whiting, beat up in 
I gallon boiling water. 

Pour {a) into (&), and mix by stirring. 

The above formula will make about 2 gallons^of 
distemper, and it will weigh 12 lb. to the gallon. 



128 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



The covering capacity is as follows : i gallon covers 
on wood, 225 square feet ; i gallon covers on brick, 
180 square feet ; i gallon covers on plaster, 270 square 
feet. 

The time of applying, using a 4 in. brush is : Rough 
walls, 22 square yards per hour ; smooth walls 38 
square yards per hour ; flat surface, 40 square yards 
per hour ; ceiling, 25 square yards per hour. 

Fence Sign White. 

{a) 6 lb. quicklime ; slack in i| gallon warm 
water ; keep covered while slacking. 

{b) 4 oz. white resin ; dissolve in 12 fl. oz. boiled 
linseed oil. 

(c) 6 lb. whiting ; beat up on i gallon skim milk. 

Mix [a) with [b) while hot, then add (c). 

Weather Whitewash. 

{a) 8 lb. quicklime ; slack in 2 gallons boiling- 
water. 

[b) I lb. carb. soda ; dissolve in J gallon boiling 
water. 

(c) I lb. common glue ; i lb. rice flour or pounded 
rice ; soak 8 hours in | gallon cold water ; dissolve 
on water bath. 

Mix {a) with {b), then add (c). 

Washable Distemper. 

{a) I lb. white glue ; soak 4 hours in | gallon 
cold water ; dissolve on water bath. 

{b) J lb. phosphate of soda ; dissolve in | gallon 
hot water. 

(c) 16 lb. whiting or other pigment ; beat up in 
I gallon warm water. 

Mix (a)* with (c), then add (b). 

Cold Water Paints. 

I lb. casein, i| oz. soda ash, mix with 10 lb. 
whiting, zinc oxide, clay, or other white pigment, or 



WATER PAINTS, DISTEMPERS, ETC. 129 

I lb. casein, 6 oz. Vienna lime, mix with 10 lb. whiting, 
plaster of Paris, etc., or i lb. casein, i oz. powdered 
soap, 2 oz. pulverised borax, 3 oz. dry carbonate of 
soda, mix with 10 lb. dry white pigment. 

Washable Cold Water Paint. 

7 lb. Paris white, 2 lb. zinc oxide, 2 lb. plaster of 
Paris, 1 lb. white dextrine, 1 lb. pulv. gum arable, i^ oz. 
pulv. borax, i oz. pulv. alum. 

Liquid Prepared Water Colour. 

[a] 12 lb. quickhme slack in 3 gallons water. 

{b) 3 lb. siUcate of soda, thin with i gallon hot 

water, then stir in ii lb. casein ; stir until dissolved. 

(c) 2 lb. strong white glue ; soak 8 hours in 
1 gallon cold water ; dissolve in 1 gallon hot water; 
dissolve on water bath. 

(d) 2 lb. pulv. alum ; dissolve in 1 gallon hot 
water ; then stir in 24 lb. Paris white or whiting. 

Mix [a] with {b), add (c), then stir in {d). 

COLOURS WHICH ARE FAST TO LIME. 

In executing distemper or fresco painting upon 
ordinary plaster, a number ofcolours cannot be success- 
fully used as the free Hme in plaster acts upon the 
colour and bleaches it. Following is a hst of the 
principal colours which are fast to lime, and are not 
affected. Most of the earth colours, such as Vandyke 
brown, red oxide, yellow ochres, siennas and umbers, 
Venetian red, Indian red, light red, hthopone, 
zinc white, whiting, cadmium yellow, ultramarine, 
cobalt blue, chrome green, emerald green, lamp 
black, and all black pigments. The crimsons and 
greens are the most Ukely to be adversely affected by 
lime. The following test may be used to ascertain 
whether any particular colour is fast to lime or not. 
First mix three parts of plaster of Paris to one part of 
freshly slaked lime, add water, mix to a paste and place 



Ill 



130 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



in a frame or mould about one inch deep. Place the 
paste in this mould, smooth level on the top, and when 
set remove the frame. Now take the colour to be 
tested, painting all the surface of the plaster slab so 
formed, at the same time paint a small portion of 
cartridge paper, and when dry, put this away between 
the leaves of a book, so that the hght cannot get to it. 
Expose the painted slab to strong light for twenty-four 
hours, and then compare the colour with the colour 
painted on the cartridge paper. If there is any differ- 
ence between them, the colour is more or less affected 
by the lime. 

As a further test, place the slab into a dish or other 
suitable fiat vessel, pour in water until it nearly 
covers the slab, leaving, however, the painted surface 
just above the top of the water. Leave it in that con- 
dition for twenty-four hours, and again compare with 
the cartridge paper. The water will act upon the 
lime, and cause it to act in its turn upon the colour. 
Any water paint which will stand this test may be said 
to be quite fast to lime. 

The substitution of washable distempers for oil 
paints in order to lessen the cost is becoming better 
understood among painters every day. The writer 
is by no means prepared to say that one or two coats 
of water paint, followed by a coat of oil paint, will 
produce a better result from the point of view of 
durabihty than a good oil paint of carbonate of lead or 
zinc all through, but he does assert most positively 
that where it is necessary to lessen the expense, 
the water paint under the oil paint will produce a far 
better job than could be obtained by using the adul- 
terated oil paint which would be necessary in order 
to keep the price within the same hmits. There is 
an immense amount of work done by the painter 
which does not justify the use of the very highest 
class materials, for instance, cottage and small villa 
property, workshops, factories, where a very high finish 



WATER PAINTS, DISTEMPERS, ETC. 131 



is not always required, and if the work is primed with 
water paint and two coats of good oil paint are given 
on top of it, the job will be a good one. The preven- 
tion of Mistering by the use of water paint above 
mentioned is very important and is not so well recog- 
nised among painters as it deserves to be. If a really 
good water paint is used it wih cure the most 
obstinate case of bUstering. 

Another use for certain of the water paints which 
are suppHed in dry powder, notably Alabastine, is for 
fining. The importance of having a level surface 
upon which to paint is well understood among painters, 
and the necessity is most marked in the case of enamel 
work, because the gloss would show up every inequaUty. 
A simple, cheap filling is made by Alabastine, and 
the cost is lessened also, because it may be so readily 
rubbed down. 



i\V' 




132 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



Artists' Water Colours and How to Mix Them. 



The colours used in water colour painting in 
most cases bear the same names as those ground in oil 
for decorators' use, but there are a number of excep- 
tions. For instance, the chrome green of the artists' 
colourman is similar to the Brunswick green of the 
house painter. All of the principal names will, how- 
ever, be found under the head of the various chapters 
headed, " Red," " Blue," etc. Note is also made 
in the same places of those colours which are used 
exclusively in water and are not suitable for use in 
oil and vice versa. Plate XL contributed by Messrs. 
Reeves and Son will repay a careful study. 

Considering the large number of artists' water 
colours on the market it is obvious that no artist 
would, as a rule, have them all at hand. Indeed, 
from one to two dozen colours are usually quite sufficient 
for the use in all ordinary water colour painting. It 
may be taken as a safe rule that, within reasonable 
limits, the more restricted a painter's palette is, the 
better. By the kindness of Messrs. Madderton and 
Company, Ltd., of Loughton, Essex, manufacturers of 
artists' and decorators' colours, we reprint from " Notes 
for Artists," the palettes of several well known artists, 
and they may safely be taken as a guide. 

Bell, Robert Anning, A.R.W.S. — Rose madder, 
pale cadmium, mid cadmium, deep cadmium, per- 
manent vellow, cobalt blue, French ultramarine, 



ARTISTS' WATER COLOURS. 



133 



cobalt green (light), oxide of chromium (viridian), 
oxide of chromium (opaque), permanent Chinese white, 
Chinese vermiHon, Venetian red (Hght red), golden 
ochre, raw sienna (Hght), trans, golden ochre, yellow 
ochre (Oxford ochre), terre verte, burnt umber, ivory 
black, raw umber. Turner brown, verona brown. 

Macintosh, J. M., R.B.A.— Light red, vermilion, 
rose dore, rose madder, purple madder, Venetian red, 
cobalt yellow (aureoUne) , pale cadmium, deep cadmium, 
lemon yellow, cobalt blue, French ultramarine, ivory 
black, sepia, yellow ochre, Roman ochre, raw umber, 
raw sienna, oxide of chromium (viridian), burnt sienna, 
cobalt green, orange cadmium. 

Severn, Walter, R.C. A. —Indian yellow, orange 
cadmium, aureoUne, yellow ochre, orange vermiHon, 
scarlet vermiHon, aHzarine, crimson, violet mineral, 
rose madder, cobalt blue, cyanine blue, emerald green, 
brown madder, transparent brown (dark), Payne's 
gray, ivory black. 

Sir Francis Powell, P.R.S.W.— Pale lemon 
yeUow, aureoHne, yeUow ochre, transparent orange 
ochre, raw sienna, raw umber, transparent brown 
(Hght), burnt umber, brown madder, burnt sienna, 
Chinese vermiHon, rose madder, aHzarine crimson and 
scarlet, cobalt violet, aHzarine violet, cerulean blue, 
cobalt blue, ultramarine, cyanine blue, transparent 
green, oxide of chromium, emerald green, ivory black. 

Linton, Sir James D., R.I. — Brown madder, 
purple madder, ruby madder, scarlet madder, pale 
cadmium, deep cadmium, orange cadmium, cerulean 
blue, cobalt blue, French ultramarine, oxide of chro- 
mium (viridian), scarlet vermiHon, burnt sienna, 
Venetian red (Hght red), raw sienna (Hght), Roman 
ochre, transparent golden ochre, yellow ochre (Oxford 
ochre), yellow ochre (light), Prussian blue, old terra 
verte, burnt umber, blue black, ivory black, raw 
umber, transparent brown (dark). 



134 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Bayliss, Sir Wyke, P.R.B.A.— Yellow ochre, 
lemon yellow, aureoline, raw sienna, light red, madder 
carmine, Chinese vermihon, cobalt blue, ultramarine, 
ash, Vandyke brown, sepia, burnt sienna, emerald 
green, ivory black, brown madder. 

The following water colour palettes are taken 
from " The Chemistry of Paints and Painting," by 
Prof. A. H. Church (Seeley). 

Sir John Gilbert, R.A. (15 pigments) .—Chinese 
white, yellow ochre, raw sienna, vermihon, hght red, 
Venetian red, Indian lake, cobalt, ultramarine (arti- 
ficial), indigo, Prussian blue, Antwerp blue, burnt 
sienna, Vandyke brown, and ivory black. 

Alfred W. Hunt (17 pigments). — Lemon yellow, 
gamboge, yellow ochre, raw sienna, vermilion, Hght 
red, Indian red, madder lake, terra verte, cobalt, 
ultramarine, ultramarine ash, smalt, madder brown, 
raw umber, burnt sienna, burnt umber. 

A palette that is useful for flower painting for 
those not well versed in mixing coloi is as follows : 
Raw sienna, burnt sienna. Chines^ white, yellow 
ochre, gamboge, Indian yellow, lemon yellow, Prussian 
blue, French blue, cobalt, Naples yellow, emerald 
green, purple lake, crimson lake, pink madder, brown 
madder, brown pink, sepia, Vandyxe brown, scarlet 
lake, scarlet vermilion, carmine, rlive green. 

It will be readily understood that from these 
palettes nearly any colour or hue may be obtained 
so that the artist has at hand means for obtaining 
any effects desired. Occasionally it may be found 
desirable to buy a small tube of some special colour 
for a special purpose or to obtain a special effect. 

Although we have given below a few mixtures by 
which some colours can be imitated it is more impor- 
tant to the beginner in water colour painting to know 
the general effects of admixture and the purposes 
for which they may be employed. Mr. Frederick 
Oughton has copyrighted a colour chart for water 



9«we 



Plate ix. 



Plate showing how 40 Tints may be 
produced by the intermixture of Blue (A), 
Yellow (B), Red (31), with White. 

The Ruie for obtaining these 40 Tints 
will be found within. 




These Tints have been stippled, the ppimaples wil 
seen on the back of this sheet, brushed plain. 



be 



Plate X. 



Twenty-seven useful Tints and Shades in 

Distemper Painting. 






Blue 
White. 




Cream 
White. 






1 
1 

;i 
I 


Clear 
White. 




25 
L 

1 








! 


26 

i 


1 


A 




20 : 


B 




27 


24 


i 
i 


H 




28 
21 


29 


C 
G 




22 
23 
31 




1 
I 

F 

1 
j 
j 




30 


1 




4 




1 7 
34 




5 


6 




the 
stip 


NOTE.— The 
other side 
pled work. 


J abov 
of th 


e specimen 
is sheet ar 


s are 
e sho\ 


brushed out 
vn specime 


. On 
ns of 





ARTISTS' WATER COLOURS. 



135 



colour painting which the author recommends strongly 
to beginners for close study. It is pubUshed at^2s. 6d. 
by Messrs. Winsor and Newton, and consists of a sheet 
of cartridge paper divided into twenty- one numbered 
spaces. Upon each is given a wash of two or more 
colours, pure at the top and blended together imme- 
diately below, being hghtened off by the addition of 
water as the colour reaches the bottom. The follow- 
ing colours are used : (i) Indigo, Vandyke brown, and 
ahzarin crimson ; (2) French blue and brown madder ; 
(3) Cobalt, sepia, and alizarin crimson ; (4) Cobalt and 
light red ; (5) Cobalt rose madder and yellow ochre ; 
(6) Cobalt and raw sienna ; (7) Cobalt, rose madder 
and aureoHn ; (8) Cobalt and yellow ochre ; (9) Sepia 
and gamboge ; (10) Indigo and yellow ochre ; (11) 
Indigo and gamboge ; (12) Indigo and sepia ; (13) 
Prussian blue ; (14) Prussian blue, burnt sienna and 
gamboge ; (15) Prussian blue and aurora yellow ; (16) 
Prussian blue and aureohne ; (17) French blue and 
ahzarin crimson ; (18) Cobalt and rose madder ; (19) 
Rose madder and yellow ochre ; (20) Vermilion and 
gamboge ; (21) VermiUon and yellow ochre. 

The chart indicates at a glance the different 
colours which are obtained by mixing the various 
pigments mentioned above after each number. The 
student might very well prepare for himself a number 
of such charts based either upon his individual fancies 
as to a palette, or by taking one or even several of 
those given above. It would be excellent practice 
to make a chart on every one of these palettes and 
to keep all the charts for constant study and inspec- 
tion as recommended under the head of " How to 
Learn to Mix Colours." 

How TO Imitate Water Colours. 

It win be noted in the following list that white, 
which is so important an element in mixing oil colours, 
is almost whollv omitted. The reasons for this are 



I 



136 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



first, that the addition of water to water colours 
produces a thin wash or a tint in the same 
manner as pigmentary white in oil colour ; next, that 
if white pigment is added in any quantity to a water 
colour a chalkiness results and the tone of the colour 
is destroyed, and third that the paper or ground in 
water colour painting being usually white this forms 
an element which must always be considered. More- 
over, crude white is very rarely employed in water 
colour painting excepting, perhaps, for small high 
lights and cloud effects. 

The following brief Ust gives the mixtures by 
which some of the colours named may be imitated. 
Alizarin Green. — Prussian blue and gamboge or 
aurora yellow. 

Blue Black. — Indigo and sepia. 
Burnt Sienna. — A close imitation may be 
obtained by mixing madder carmine and cappagh 
or Caledonian brown. 

Cadmium. — Chrome yellow with a very slight 
addition of burnt sienna. 

Cadmium Orange. — Add a httle vermiUon to 
medium cadmium yellow. 

Cologne Earth. — Prussian blue and sienna. 
Grays. — A large series of grays suitable for 
skies may be produced by mixing either of the follow- 
ing colours with or without black as may be required : 
Lake and cobalt ; lake and indigo ; light red and 
cobalt ; Indian red and cobalt ; indigo, lake and 
burnt sienna ; indigo, lake and gamboge. 

Hooker's Green. — Prussian blue and gamboge 
or aureolin. 

Indigo. — ^Dark ultramarine with black and add 
a very Httle veridian, or mix Prussian blue, crimson 
lake and black. 

Indian Red. — Tone vermilion with a very Httle 
yeUow ochre and add madder carmine and ivory 
black until a match is made. 



ARTISTS' WATER COLOURS. 



137 



Light Red.— Mix together yellow ochre, vermilion 
and cappagh or Caledonian brown. 

Madder Brown. — Vandyke brown and crimson. 

Prussian Blue.— Add black and a very little 
veridian to ultramarine. 

Neutral Orange. — Cadmium and Venetian red. 

Raw Sienna. — Mix aureolin, yellow ochre, with 
cappagh or Caledonian brown. 

Rose Madder. — Crimson lake with a Httle Van- 
dyke brown. 

Sepia. — Vandyke brown and black. 

Vandyke Brown. — Tint cappagh or Caledonian 
brown with madder carmine and sadden with a very 

little black. 

Venetian Red.— Mix together yellow ochre, 
vermilion and madder carmine and add a Httle cappagh 
or Caledonian brown. 

Suggestions for Painters in Water Colour. 

Although the above Ust may be useful under 
some circumstances the beginner in water colour 
painting will be more interested in learning the mixtures 
which may be successfully employed in various parts 
of a picture and to such the fohowing hints will be 
useful for study. It must always be remembered 
that thin washes are, as a rule, intended. 

Autumnal Tints (See also skies).— (a) Indian 
yellow ; {b) French blue and brown pink ; (c) Cobalt, 
Naples yellow, and rose madder ; {d) Gamboge and 
rose madder. 

Banks, Earthy.— (a) Light red, yellow ochre, 
and Payne's grey ; (&) Gamboge and burnt sienna ; 
(c) Yellow ochre and Vandyke brown. 

Bracken.— Yellow tints, yellow ochre, French 
blue and Indian yellow. Green tints : French blue 
and yellow ochre. Red tints : cadmium, Venetian 
red and burnt sienna. 



msm^ 



138 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



■ '». 



Branches of Trees. — [a) Vandyke brown ; (5) 
Brown madder with or without a httle French blue ; 
(c) French blue and brown madder ; {d) Rose madder 
and blue black ; [e) Sepia and brown madder. 

Backgrounds. — It is almost useless to give 
mixtures for backgrounds, because to put it crudely 
anything will do for the purpose provided that it 
harmonises the picture itself or either throws in relief 
or acts as a foil as the case may require. The follow- 
ing are some useful backgrounds other than plain 
greys and grays which are so often employed. 
[a) Cobalt blue, Chinese white and emerald green ; {h) 
Cobalt and brown madder ; (c) Cobalt and scarlet 
vermilion with a little emerald green. 

Clouds and Distances. — Mix thin washes, either 
of the following in varying proportions according to 
circumstances : [a] Cobalt, yellow ochre, and rose 
madder ; (6) The same, omitting the cobalt ;• (c) 
Brown madder and cobalt ; [d) French blue, burnt 
sienna, and crimson lake ; {e) Indigo and blue black ; 
(/) Cobalt and light red ; [g) French blue and blue 
black ; {h) cobalt, hght red and rose madder ; {i) 
Yellow ochre or Indian red with a little rose madder. 

Clouds (Stormy). — {a) Blue black and hght red ; 
(&) French blue and blue black ; (c) French blue, 
light red, and blue black. 

Flowers and Fruit. — It is obviously impossible 
within the limits of the present work to give anything 
like a complete list of the different colours used in 
painting fruit and flowers ; indeed, their number is 
infinite. A few of the most important, however, may 
be given, [a) Vermilion and gamboge (marigold) ; (6) 
Vermilion and yellow^ ochre ; (c) French blue and 
crimson ; [d) Rose madder and cobalt ; {e) Rose madder 
and yellow ochre; (/) scarlet lake and cobalt (Christmas 
rose) ; (g) Madder and white or pink madder by 
itself (pink rose) ; (A) Scarlet lake and carmine (red 
rose) ; (/) Crimson lake and purple lake (dark parts 



ARTISTS' WATER COLOURS. 



139 



of, cyclamen) ; (/) Crimson lake mixed with either 
purple lake, madder brown, Indian yehow or gamboge 
(carnation). 

Foliage, Grass and Herbage. — Clearly a wide 
range of greens, reds, and yellows may be employed 
for these purposes. The following are some suggestions. 
{a) Veridian and French blue ; (&) Gamboge and 
sepia ; (c) French blue and emerald green ; {d) 
Emerald green and gamboge ; [e] Indigo and gamboge ; 
(/) Indian yellow and burnt umber ; (g) Indian 
yellow and French blue ; [h) French blue, Indian 
yellow and burnt sienna ; [i) Yellow ochre and French 
blue ; (/) French blue, rose madder and yeUow ochre ; 
{k) Indigo, Ught red and yellow ochre ; (/) Gamboge, 
burnt sienna, and French blue ; (w) Burnt sienna, 
Indian yellow and French blue ; [n] Yellow ochre, 
gamboge, French blue, and burnt sienna. 

Foliage and Herbage (Distant). — {a) French 
blue and brown pink ; [b) YeUow ochre ; (c) Brown 
pink mixed with French blue and either burnt sienna 
or Vandyke brown ; {d) Naples yellow and cobalt ; 
{e) Cobalt and lemon yellow ; (/) Naples yellow, 
yellow ochre, and cobalt. 

Foregrounds. — {a) Brown pink, either by itself 
or mixed with burnt sienna, Vandyke brown or gam- 
boge'; (b) gamboge and yellow ochre ; (c) Yellow 
ochre and cobalt, with or without a httle Hght red. 

Grass. — {a) French blue and gamboge ; (b) In- 
digo and gamboge ; (c) French blue mixed with 
gamboge and yellow ochre or Indian yellow ; {d) 
French blue and yellow ochre. 

Grays, Warm and Cold. — For clouds, hills and 
distant effects. To get these mix either of the follow- 
ing, depending upon the circumstances : — Mix cobalt 
with either {a) Light red ; (6) Raw sienna ; (c) 
Sepia and crimson ; {d) Rose madder and aureolin, or 
{e) Rose madder and yellow ochre. Mix indigo with 



140 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

crimson and Vandyke brown or mix French blue with 
brown madder. 

Ivy. — [a] Indigo and burnt sienna ; {b) Yellow 
ochre, brown madder and French blue ; (c) Brown 
madder, French blue, and a Uttle cobalt. 

Leaves and Stems of Flowers. — Here again a 
very large variety of greens might be given, but the 
following hst will be found to suit most requirements : 
{a) Naples yellow or gamboge mixed with a httle 
emerald green ; {b) Cobalt or French blue mixed with 
carmine and Naples yellow ; (c) Prussian blue and 
gamboge ; {d) French blue, gamboge, and yellow 
ochre ; {e) French blue, raw sienna, and gamboge ; 
(/) French blue, scarlet lake, and a Httle Naples yellow. 
Note : This gives a deUcate bluish mauve suitable 
for the under part of the leaves of the cyclamen ; 
[g) Indian yellow, gamboge and Prussian blue ; {h) 
Olive green used alone or mixed with a little raw 
sienna, white or Prussian blue ; [i] Prussian blue, 
sepia and raw sienna ; (/) Cobalt gamboge and yellow 
ochre. This list might be added to almost indefinitely, 
but inasmuch as several greens are usually to be 
found in the palettes of most painters further examples 
are not necessary. 

Mountains. — [a) Yellow ochre, cobalt and rose 
madder ; {b) Either two of the three last mentioned ; 
(c) Cobalt, rose madder, and raw umber ; (d) Light 
red, rose madder, and cobalt. 

Rivers. — The colours used will depend, of course, 
upon the state of the river. If it is calm raw sienna 
with a httle Vandyke brown and cobalt will answer. 
If dark, Indian yellow, sepia, and lake may be used, 
or Vandyke brown, Indian yellow and lake. 

Roads. — {a) Rose madder, burnt umber, and 
indigo ; {b) Light red and blue black ; (c) Yellow- 
ochre ; {d) Yellow ochre, light red, and either Payne's 
grey, or a httle cobalt ; {e) Yellow ochre and Van- 
dyke brown- ,, 






ARTISTS' WATER COLOURS. 



141 



Sea. — [a] Cobalt mixed with either light red, 
burnt sienna or lake, and yellow ochre ; (&) Indigo, 
yellow ochre, and rose madder ; (c) Raw sienna mixed 
with blue black or cobalt. 

Shadows. — The colour of shadows will, of course, 
always depend upon the colour of the object upon 
which they are thrown. The following mixtures are 
among the most useful — 

{a) Brown pink, French blue and lake ; (6) Lake 
and Indigo ; (c) Blue black, lake and burnt umber ; 
{d) Cobalt rose madder and yellow ochre. 

Shadows, Especially over Flesh Colour. — 
Mix cobalt and raw sienna. 

Shadows (Foreground) . — When a purple shadow 
is required use either (a) Cobalt mixed with rose 
madder ; [b) French blue and crimson. 

Shadows (General). — Vary either of the follow- 
ing : {a) French blue, burnt sienna, crimson lake ; [b) 
Cobalt, raw and burnt sienna. • 

Shadows (Warm and Cold). — {a) Sepia, indigo, 
and crimson lake ; {b) Indigo and light red; (c) 
Crimson lake and blue black ; {d) Light red and blue 
black ; (e) Indigo and Indian red. 

Ships (Hull). — {a) Burnt sienna; {b) Lake and 
Vandyke brown ; (c) Burnt sienna, brown madder 
and blue black. Sails : {a) Raw sienna ; (&) Yellow 
ochre, and umber ; (c) Roman ochre ; {d) Brown 
madder and light red. 

Skies. — Skies may vary from differently toned 
grays to pure cobalt : Under the head of grays on 
page 83 will be found a number of different mixtures 
most of which are suitable for sky work. The follow- 
ing are additional mixtures : — 

{a) Cobalt and rose madder ; {b) Indigo and 
Indian red ; (c) Cobalt and a Httle Chinese white 
or (d) Cobalt by itself. 

Stone Walls. — {a) Rose madder and blue black ; 
(b) Yellow ochre and Vandyke brown ; (c) Blue black 



142 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



(d) Indigo and sepia ; (/) Yellow ochre and blue 
black ; (g) Yellow ochre, hght red and blue black. 

Sunset and Sunrise. — The same as Autumnal 
Tints, which see. 

Trees : Distance and Middle Distance. — 
Use either of the following : {a) Indigo and gamboge ; 
{b) Sepia and gamboge ; (c) Cobalt and yellow ochre ; 
{d) Indigo and yellow ochre ; {e) Indigo and sepia ; 
(/) Cobalt, lake and yellow ochre ; (g) Brown pink, 
indigo, and burnt sienna ; {h) Gamboge, Hght red, 
and indigo. 

Trees (in the Foreground). — Either of the 
following mixtures will serve : (a) Prussian blue, 
gamboge, and burnt sienna ; (&) Prussian blue and 
aureolin ; (c) Prussian blue and aurora yellow and 
Prussian blue and burnt sienna ; (d) Gamboge, yellow 
ochre, and indigo ; {e) Gamboge, burnt sienna, and 
indigo ; (/) Naples yellow, Indian yellow, French 
blue, and a little burnt sienna. 




v«- 



TESTING COLOURS. 



H3 



CHAPTER XVII. 



Testing Colours. 



Although to accurately test the quality of a colour 
requires somewhat elaborate experiments, both 
chemical and practical, yet there is no reason why the 
painter should not determine with a sufficient degree of 
accuracy for his purpose the quality of the colour he 
uses. Indeed, if this was done more generally, many 
of the grossly indifferent colours would be driven from 
the market, and none would rej oice more at such a result 
than the colour manufacturers themselves. The writer 
has no connection with, or interest in, these manufac- 
turers, but it is only fair to assert that they are as 
desirous that the trade should use pure colours as the 
painters can possibly be. Even the largest houses 
produce cheap grades of colours, and this they do almost 
under a protest and simply because they are compelled 
by painters demanding colours for certain low prices, 
far below that at which it would be possible to produce 
the pure article. As a rule such adulterated colours 
do not bear the name of the maker. Our advice to 
painters is : Make a careful com.parison between pure 
colours and those you are using. At the same time, 
compare the prices and then see which is cheaper to 
use. If even they come out at the same price, remem- 
ber that by using a pure colour you will have all the 
benefit of that purity of tone so necessary for the 
execution of good work. 



144 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



The first thing to be done in testing 'any paint 
material is to have a standard. There must be no 
doubt about this. Unless we have in each case some- 
thing with which to compare the particular sample 
of colour that is being examined, we shall have ho 
useful information concerning it. Take, therefore, 
good decorators' colours of well known make. If 
necessary purchase small tubes of the best colours, 
such as are put up for artists' use. This will be rather 
a severe trial, but still it will afford a standard. 
Having such samples and going through the tests we are 
about to describe, the painter can, after some amount 
of trouble, arrive at results which are almost as accurate 
as those which could be deduced by a chemist. An 
expert on this question some years ago summarised 
the characteristics of colours which should be con- 
sidered in making the examination, under the following 
heads : — 

1. Purity of the material. 

2. Purity of the tone ; brilliancy ; richness, 
which indicate the amount of care in selection. 

3. Fineness of grinding or preparation ; this 
means the degree of the division of the particles and 
upon the completeness of such division the durability 
will in a great measure depend. 

4. Its spreading capacity. 

5. Its body. This applies, of course, only to 
opaque or semi-opaque colours. Body is opacity, 
and means capacity to conceal the surface to which 
the paint is applied, and must not be confused with 
spreading. It is an inherent quality. 

6. Its staining power or tinting strength with 
white or colours. 

7. The quality of purity of the tint obtained by 
mixing with white. 

8. If a paste colour, the consistenc}^ of the paste. 

9. Transparency of transparent colours and the 
quality of the transparency. 



TESTING COLOURS. 



145 



10. The permanency of the colour. 

It will be observed that all of these tests will not 
necessarily be applied to every colour. For instance, 
a transparent colour would be tested for its trans- 
parency, but certainly not for its body. The one 
condition is the converse of the other. 

We will now consider the above-named quaUties 
separately. 

Purity of the Material. — This is sometimes of 
considerable importance, as in the case of white lead, 
whilst in others — for example the earth colours — it can 
hardly be said that there is a standard of purity. As 
a rule a knowledge of practical chemistry is necessary 
in order to determine whether a sample of paint or 
colour is pure or not. 

The purity of white lead, however, can readily be 
ascertained by the painter who possesses no chemical 
knowledge, viz., by aid of the blow-pipe. Take a piece 
of flat charcoal and scoop out a hollow space from it into 
which place a small piece of white lead to be tested, 
about the size of a pea. Now direct the flamic of a blow- 
pipe upon it, using an ordinary paraffin candle or a 
Bunsen burner, taking care that the blue portion of 
the flame bears upon the lead. Keep up a steady 
blow for a few minutes and the white lead will be 
converted into metalHc lead, which will show in the 
form of a bright silver-hke button. If the lead is 
adulterated the blowing will only have the result of 
making it appear like a cinder. To conduct this 
experiment successfully requires a httle practice with 
the blow-pipe in order to obtain a steady flame. 

Another method of testing is to place a little white 
lead in a crucible and place this on a hot fire, when, if 
genuine, it will be converted into metallic lead. 

A form of blow-pipe that may be purchased at 
most ironmongers' shops consists of a wooden handle 
and a container filled with cotton soaked in benzine. 
To this is attached a rubber tube with a mouthpiece. 



146 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



This blow-pipe is very easily used, and may be success- 
fully employed in testing the purity of white lead in 
the manner indicated. 

Purity of Tone. — Some rcmarlvs on this subject 
will be given under the heads of the various groups of 
colours. . Speaking generally, the richness of brilliancy 
of tone is easily discernible by placing the sample to 
be tested side by side with another of well known 
excellence. In siennas, ochres and umbers the selection 
of crude material by v/hich the richness of tone is 
assured is of great importance. 

Fineness of Grinding. — The method of testing 
the fineness of a pigment usually employed by the 
painter is to rub a little on the finger nail ; but this 
is a crude and unreliable method. If the pigment is 
dry and it is desired to compare it for fineness with a 
similar pigment or white lead, the following is as good 
a plan as any : — 

Take two tali vertical glass jars, place in them 
an equal amount of turpentine, and then take a small 
quantity of the white lead to be tested. Place it in 
one jar, and an equal quantity of the pigment with 
which it is to be compared, in the other ; thoroughly 
stir up both and then note the time it takes the samples 
to settle. If graduated marks are made on the two 
jars the observations will be taken more readily. 

Another test is to weigh out equal quantities of 
the two leads, and then to take a very small quantity 
of the same colour, say black, and add to each sample, 
thoroughly mixing. The lead that is the lightest in 
colour will be the finest. The explanation of this 
is somewhat interesting. Suppose that we have a 
number of cubes of white lead each measuring one 
inch side. This will give us six superficial inches to be 
coloured. Now suppose that we break up these inch 
cubes into half inch cubes, which will give eight half 
inch cubes to each inch cube. Now as each half inch 
cube has six faces measuring half an inch by half an 



TESTING COLOURS, 



147 



inch, it has a superficial surface of three square inches ; 
and as there are eight of the half inch cubes, there are 
twenty-four superficial inches to be coloured against 
six in the inch cubes. It will be seen, therefore, that by 
increasing the fineness of a pigment a greater surface 
is presented to be coloured, and hence more colour is 
required. 

Another test for fineness is to paint different 
samples thinned in turpentine on plate glass ; when 
dry the two specimens may be compared, and the 
difference of fineness between them will soon be 
apparent. 

Still another test, and one frequently used by 
painters, is to place a quantity of the colour ground in 
oil that is to be tested upon a level surface such as a 
piece of glass, and to run the blade of a spatula or 
palette knife over it, and then over another sample 
with which it is to be compared, noticing carefully 
the difference in appearance of the two samples. By 
these means the presence of grit is discovered. ;, 

Spreading Capacity or Covering Power. — The 
spreading capacity of pigments and their " body " are 
very nearly related, although of two equal in body one 
may possess greater covering power or spreading 
capacity than the other. A practical method of 
testing covering pov/er is to mix a small quantity of a 
standard paint and an exactly similar quantity of the 
pigment to be tested, taking care to use precisely the 
same amount of oil and thinners in each case. Then, 
taking a clean brush for each of the paints, paint a 
door, or other surface that has been primed, on two 
panels side by side, continuing to paint till all the 
pigment has been in each case used up. The one 
that goes farthest has the greater covering power. 

In comparing the two it will be well to notice 
whether the body is equal to both cases, as one may go 
farther but not cover so well. 



I 



14a 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Body. — The word " body," as applied to pigments, 
is almost synonymous with opaqueness. It is the 
most important property of a pigment, and it is 
because white lead possesses the quahty in an eminent 
degree that it is so much valued. 

Body is sometimes called " covering power," but 
this term is a Uttle misleading, as some may suppose 
it to relate to the spreading capacity of the pigment. 

If two different white leads ground in oil to an 
equal consistency be appHed to different panels of 
a door, primed in the same manner, the one of the two 
leads that possesses the better body will be shown 
by it hiding the grain of the wood better. Some 
white leads, especially those that are manufactured 
by the new processes, lack this important quaUty of 
body, and three coats will only cover the work as well 
as about two of old process whitelead. 

There are numbers of methods of practically 
testing the " body " of pigments, among the simplest 
being the following. 

Prime and paint a board with alternate black and 
white squares, Uke a chess- or draught-board. Take a 
sample of a pigment, similar to that to be tested, of 
which the body is known to be good, and paint a wide 
strip across the chess-board ; then paint a smaller 
strip of the pigment to be tested. When both strips 
are dry, by comparing them one can tell almost at a 
glance which has the better body, the superior pigment 
covering or hiding the black squares better than the 
other. A second coat may afterward be appHed to 
each over a portion of the strip, if desired. 

It may be again mentioned that in all cases of 
practically testing paints the results are obtained by 
comparisons being made, and hence it is necessary in 
every case to have a standard with which to compare 
the sample to be tested as has already been explained. 

The test of painting over squares of black and white 
may be varied by using stripes instead. The test 



TESTING COLOURS. 



149 



answers equally well for white lead, zinc, lithopone or 
any pigment of which the quality of body is of impor- 
tance. In some colours it is of little moment. 

Tinting or Staining Strength. — We have 
already explained at length how greatly the tinting 
strength of different colours or stains varies. Any 
painter can test the tinting strength of any colour 
himself in a very simple manner. All that is necessary 
is to have a pair of apothecaries' scales, some blotting 
paper, a palette knife, some pieces of glass or a flat 
piece of marble and some pieces of waxed paper. First 
weigh out say eighty grains of dry white lead or dry 
zinc. Any other white will answer equally well. 
Place these eighty grains on one side of the glass and 
the second eighty grains on the other. Now take the 
dry colour and weigh one grain and add that to one 
of the little piles of white, then weigh a grain of the 
standard colour and add that to the other pile. Next 
add to each pile a few drops of oil, taking care that 
the number of drops is the same in each case. With the 
pabtte knife thoroughly mix until no streaks can be 
seen and the mixture is perfectly uniform. Then by 
comparing the two the difference in tinting strength 
will at once be apparent. The same result would have 
been produced had ordinary white lead ground in 
oil been used instead of dry lead or zinc. If the colour 
is ground in oil a little difference in the method must be 
observed, the reason being that one colour might be 
ground much thinner than the other, in other words 
might contain much more oil than the other, and 
hence if equal weights of each were compared the result 
would be misleading. Take then each colour in oil — 
that is the standard and the colour with which it is 
to be compared — place on a small quantity of blotting 
paper and allow it to remain a few minutes so that the 
oil may be extracted. If it is thought necessary the 
sample can be washed with benzine, but for painters* 
purposes the extraction of the oil by means of blotting 



150 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



paper is sufficient for the purpose. The two samples 
having remained on the blotting paper for a short time 
one grain of each is weighed out separately on little 
pieces of wax paper, this being used so that the colour 
shall not stick to the scale. Then each grain is mixed 
separately with the white and the result compared as 
before. It is not too much to say that every painter 
should be prepared to make this test, because it informs 
him not only as to the tinting strength of the colour, 
but also gives valuable information as to the tone, etc. 
Of course the quantities may be varied if necessary, 
and a larger amount used instead of the single grains. 
It need hardly be pointed out that scrupulous cleanli- 
ness is necessary for successfully carrying out this 
test. The palette knife must be wiped between each 
operation and every care taken to do justice to both 
samples. 

If the reader will turn to Plate I. in this work 
he will see a number of colours given in their full 
strength, and also when reduced with certain parts 
of white, as marked upon the sheets. The colours 
used in the preparation of this sheet were of excellent 
quality, and it will prove interesting no doubt to the 
student to mix the colour he has been in the habit of 
using in the same proportion with white, and to note 
whether the results come out above or below those 
shown by our samples. 

The Permanence of Colours. — It must be 
admitted that it is very disappointing to a painter to 
find, after taking pains to produce the exact colour 
required, that it " flies" or fades after a little exposure 
to the weather. The tests for thepermanence of a colour 
when exposed to light are simple enough, and are to 
mix a little of the colours to be tested in oil and to 
spread them on different slips of paper, cut the paper 
in half, number each half with corresponding figures or 
letters, expose one half to a strong light for as long as 
may be deemed desirable and put the other half away 



SPECIMENS OF TYPICAL WATER COLOURS. 



oo 



V 






Gamboge. Cadmium Ex. Pale. Cadmium Pale. Cadmium IVIid. Cadmium Deep. 

oooo 

Y Yellow Oclire. Raw Sienna. Burnt Sienna. Burnt Umber". Raw Umber. 





Sap Green. 







Olive Green. Terre Vepte. 



Sepia. Vandyke Brown, 











Viridian. Emerald Green. Antwerp Blue. Prussian Blue. Indigo. 



003 

I Purple Lake. Cobalt Blue. New Blue. French Blue. Permanent Blue. 






o 




Caroline. Alizarin Crimson. Pink Madder. Rose Madder. Brown Madder. 






o 



C Crimson Lake. Scarlet Lake. Vermilion Pale. Vermilion Mid. Vermilion Deep. 





9 





Neutral Tint. Venetian Red. Light Red. 



Indian Red. Ivory Black. 




M 



TESTING COLOURS. 



151 



into a safe place where the light does not penetrate. 
Waxed paper is the best, as it will not absorb the 
thinners or, better still, glass may be used, this being 
cut across with a diamond after the paint has been 
apphed. It need hardly be said that the permanence of 
water colours is entirely different from that of oil 
colours. Some very useful experiments were made 
several years ago by Captain Abney on the permanence 
of water colours, and these were pubhshed in the form 
of a blue book. In the lists of colours which are 
given in the preceding chapters, the quality of 
permanence or non-permanence under various con- 
ditions is given in each case. 

COLOURS FAST TO LIGHT. 

Some colours fly or fade very quickly, while others 
are perfectly permanent. In the Hsts of mixtures 
under the head of " Reds," " Blues," etc., in this 
book, will be found a Hst of all the colours on the 
market and a note is made in each case whether the 
colour is permanent when exposed to light or not. 

The method of ascertaining whether a pigment is 
fast to Hght is recommended by George H. Hurst in 
his admirable book, " Painters' Colours, Oil and 
Varnishes," and is as follows. 

Probably the simplest method (which is a very 
good one) of testing the durability of colours, is to pro- 
vide a sheet of unglazed cardboard ; that known as 
Bristol board will do very well. It must have so slight 
an absorbent property that if any coat of paint is placed 
on the surface it will remain there, and not soak into 
the substance of the cardboard. This sheet of board 
is ruled into squares or rectangles measuring about 
3 in. by 3 in., or 2 in. by 2 in. 

A little of the colour to be tested is ground up 
with a little gum water into a .smooth paste, and a 
portion of one of the ruled spaces on the cardboard 
painted with it. It is advisable to rule and prepare two 




152 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



sheets at the same time. The name of the colour can 
be written either underneath the patch of colour in the 
square, or in a corresponding position on the back of 
the card. It is also advisable to grind a little of the 
pigment with oil, so that the relative durability as a 
water colour and as an oil colour can be tested. 

One of the prepared cards is hung in a place where 
it is exposed to as much sunlight and air as possible, 
while the other card is placed in a drawer away from 
any such influence. After a week or two of exposure 
the cards can be compared to see if any changes have 
occurred ; they can then be replaced in their respective 
positions, and from time to time compared together. 
Any change which may have been brought about by the 
action of sunlight and air on the exposed card will be 
observable ; some colours will be changed in a few 
weeks' exposure, other colours require months of 
exposure to produce any effect. 

By placing a card painted in the manner described, 
with different pigments in a closed cupboard, in which 
is placed a vessel containing some ferrous sulphide and 
diluted sulphuric acid, the action of sulphuretted 
hydrogen on the colours can be tested ; if any are 
affected by this test it is certain that they will be 
similarly affected when exposed to the action of impure 
air. 

We may now take each colour separately, following 
the order taken by the late Mr. W. C. Wilson, who 
arranged the above quoted table in conjunction with 
the author. 

Chrome Green. — This colour is often made by 
the addition of a base such as barytes, but the pre- 
sence of this material is not necessary. A number of 
different shades of chrome green are sold, usually 
designated pale, mid (middle or medium) and deep. 
The tinting strength should be tested by mixing one 
part of green to, say, a hundred parts of white lead or 
zinc, as explained elsewhere, or twenty-five parts of 



TESTING COLOURS. 



153 



lead may be used to one part of green. If it is desired 
to find out the relative strength for tinting purposes 
of the green, it can be done very simply in the follow- 
ing manner, but the painter must have a pair of 
apothecaries' scales, in order to weigh the different 
quantities. Take first the same quantity of the green 
which is being tested as that of the standard. If the 
colour is not so deep add more green each time, and 
more and more until the two samples are exactly the 
same tint. By comparing the weights the experimenter 
will have accurately the relative value of the two greens 
for colouring purposes. The test for body of the green 
is performed in almost exactly the same way as that 
already described for white lead. Prime a board 
thoroughly so that there may be no absorption, paint 
across the centre of it a stripe of white and by its side 
a stripe of black. When this is thoroughly dry take the 
two greens ; that is, the standard and the one being 
tested. Then mix both with exactly the same amount 
of oil and turpentine. Take a clean brush for each 
and paint over the black and white stripes. The 
one which has the greatest body will, of course, hide the 
stripes better than the other one. The experiment is 
simple, and is very useful as a body tint. 

Bronze Green. — This colour is usually mixed by 
the painter and not bought ready made, although all 
manufacturers make bronze greens. Quaker green 
is practically the same thing. The mixture usually 
employed is ochre, lamp black and a httle yellow. 
The chrome should be either yellow or orange, but 
not lemon. Bronze greens may be made in a large 
variety by varying the quantities of the colours mixed 
and by introducing sienna, umber or Indian red in 
small quantities as may be required. The colour is 
very rich, and many cheap bronze greens consist of 
a considerable quantity of adulteration. 

Emerald Green. — This is a very brihiant green 
almost identical with spectrum green. It is 



154 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



sometimes used where brightness is required. When 
ground in oil the test for purity is to dissolve it 
with benzine and when the dry powder is obtained to 
treat it with strong ammonia. It will thus entirely 
dissolve if pure, giving a deep blue colour. 

Venetian, Indian and Tuscan Reds, Etc. — 

These colours may be classed as the iron colours, 
consisting largely of oxide of iron. It should be 
remembered that ochres and umbers also receive their 
colouring from iron. iVnalysis gives but little informa- 
tion concerning the value of this group of colours. 
They form economical paints, especially as they spread 
well. The proportion of oxide of iron contained is 
often considered to be an indication of quality, but 
this refers particularly to cases where paint is to be used 
on iron. The tests of value to the painter are body 
and fineness of grinding, which may be tested in the 
usual way. Oxide paints are usually sold as such in 
three shades. A Venetian red is lighter than an Indian 
red, which, in comparison, should have a purplish tint. 
It must be remembered in this class of colours that a 
comparison of the same shades must be made if any 
useful result is to be obtained. 

Tuscan Red is a mixture of Indian red with some 
sort of lake colour in order to secure brilliancy. This 
brilliancy forms an important feature of the test. 
Body should also be ascertained, and fineness of grinding 
is also important. A Tuscan red, which is coarse, 
may lose its richness when ground fine. 

Indian Red. — This is shown by analysis to 
consist almost wholly of oxide of iron. The paler 
Indian red is, the greater is its tinting strength, and 
the rosier is the tint obtained from it by mixing it 
with white. Indian red should be always tested for 
fineness and tint. 

Vermilion and Vermilionettes. — Many of the 
imitation vermilions consist of orange red, that is, a 
superior red lead coloured with eosine, which is the 



TESTING COLOURS. 



155 



name of one of the coal tar colours. Speaking gener- 
ally, the scarlet colours are more permanent than those 
having a crimson tinge. It is important to know that 
the tinting strength for many vermihonettes is no 
indication of their quaUty, or rather, perhaps it should 
be said that within reasonable limits the better stainers 
they are, the worse colours they will prove to be. This 
is because barytes or some other mineral may be 
substituted for the orange red and then the eosine will 
go farther in staining. 

Red Lead. — Every painter knows that the great 
objection to the use of red lead is that it will harden 
quickly. We recommend that on large jobs arrange- 
ments should be made with a manufacturer to supply a 
sufhcient quantity for two or three days. It should 
be well ground to a thin paste in the proportion of, 
say, about one pound of oil to five pounds of red lead. 
The usual manner of painting iron, etc.,' in red lead is 
to first give a priming coat of pure lead and then a 
second coat of any colour desired. An excellent 
second coat is formed of equal parts by weight of red 
lead and good iron oxide. Any finishing coat may be 
applied. 

Chromes. 

There are many shades of chrome yellows sold, 
the most usual being lemon, medium and orange 
chromes, sometimes called i, 2, and 3. The other 
shades are sold under various names, depending upon 
the manufacturer. It is advisable that the painter 
should always have on hand the fighter shades, as 
although it might appear at first sight that on mixing 
the deeper shades with white he would get the same 
result, as a matter of fact there is a considerable 
difference. As noted elsewhere, chromes must not 
be mixed with ultramarine. The pale chromes change 
colour quicker than the darker shades. Pale chrome 
should never be used on fresh plaster, although orange 
chromes may. In the deeper shades of chrome orange 



II 



156 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



nil I 



red is sometimes used as an admixture or adulterant, 
but this is not a good stainer. The test for a chrome 
is tinting strength, taking care to make a comparison 
with the same grade of colours, that is, light, medium 
or orange chrome. Fineness is another important test. 
Placing a small quantity on glass and passing a palette 
knife over it and pressing firmly will detect grit if 
present. In the lighter chromes it is well to look for 
the greyness of tone which is objectionable. Chromes 
mix well with white lead and are strong in body. 

Ochres. — Analysis is of no value in determining 
the value of an ochre. Sometimes chrome yellow is 
used to tone it up. The colour is an important feature, 
as is also the fineness. 

Blacks. 

There are a number of blacks on the market, drop 
black, ivory black, blue black, vegetable black, carbon 
black, etc. The subject of their tests is a somewhat 
intricate one, but its tinting strength can be readily 
ascertained by mixing with white lead or zinc in the 
manner already described. They are frequently adul- 
terated with barytes. 

Blues, 

Prussian blue must be very finely ground or it is 
likely to settle out. A pure Prussian blue has a rich 
bronze appearance when looked at from certain points 
of view. The tint made by mixing with white should 
be clear and free from any leaden or gray appearance. 
Some Prussian blues have a certain red or purpHsh cast 
which cannot be removed. These should be avoided, 
as if a purple is required it is a simple matter to add a 
little red to the blue to produce the desired colours. 
One part in a hundred of good Prussian blue gives a 
distinct sky blue. 

Ultramarine.— As explained elsewhere, this 
colour cannot be mixed with white lead. Where it 



TESTING COLOURS. 



157 



is necessary to make a tint, zinc white should be 
employed in preference. 

Umbers and Siennas. 

The colour should be a rich brown rather than a 
red cast. In siennas prepared for grainers' use, it is 
important that they be transparent rather than 
opaque. Richness and quality of tint should be 
considered rather than the body. 

Those who are interested in testing colours are 
advised to purchase " Simple Methods for Testing 
Painters' Materials," by A. C. Wright, M.A., B.Sc. 
The price is 5s., and the publishers are Messrs. Scott, 
Greenwood and Son, 19, Ludgate Hill, London, E.G. 
It is a thoroughly reliable work which gives simple 
tests for all the principal materials used by the painter. 




158 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



Notes on Colour Harmony, 



Perhaps the most difficult subject with which the 
decorator has to deal is that of colour harmony. In 
other words, how to use different colours in decoration 
in such a manner as to produce a perfectly harmonious 
and pleasing result. The subj ect is a difficult and com- 
prehensive one, and it would be impossible within the 
limits of this book to do justice to it. A few general 
hints, however, will no doubt be of service. 

It should be first recognised that there are distinct 
rules and laws regulating harmony in colour. Just 
as some people have an ear quick to recognise the 
slightest discord, so some are fortunate enough to 
possess an inherent talent for recognising colour 
harmony. It is to be feared that while the musical 
ear, so to speak, is fairly common, the ability to har- 
monise colours is much rarer. Speaking generally, ladies 
have more natural talent in matters concerning colour 
than men have. Possibly the reason is that they are 
called upon more frequently to choose and determine 
uponmattersrelating to colour in connection with their 
dress. It is true that if one is inclined to be satirical 
one might suggest that some ladies, judging by the 
extraordinary combination of colours they wear, must 
be colour blind. 

It has been proved by statistics that one person 
in ten is colour blind, but this does not mean wholly 
devoid of the ability to distinguish one colour from 



NOTES ON COLOUR HARMONY. 



159 



another, but simply that there are certain colours 
which the person who is colour blind cannot dis- 
tinguish from others. 

In almost everyday work the painter is called 
upon to mix colours that shall harmonise, as, for 
instance, to paint the woodwork of a room in colours 
that will harmonise with the wall-paper. 

Matching the Wall-paper. — The simplest plan, 
and therefore the one which is usually followed, is to 
take the prevailing colour of the wall and to use it, 
usually much lightened, on the woodwork. Other 
colours which occur in the paper may be introduced 
as may be thought to be judicious. For example, 
if the room is a bed-chamber and the paper has a 
cream ground with a floral pattern printed in green 
with a pink flower, the stiles and rails of the doors 
might be painted a light green, the panels cream, 
and the mouldings, or a portion of them, pink. The 
same plan may be followed successfully with many 
papers, but on the other hand much more pleasing and 
artistic results may often be obtained by using a 
distinct, but harmonising contrast. A single example 
will suffice. The writer has before him a striped wall- 
paper, printed in brilliant sealing-wax red, which 
might cause wonderment in the eyes of a novice as 
to how it could possibly be used successfully in an 
ordinary room. The excessive brilliancy might at 
first sight appear to be certain to produce an effect too 
glaring to make a comfortable living-room. Yet such a 
paper used in a room very soberly furnished say, with 
old dark oak, ebony or black walnut, would look very 
handsome, or in a more modern room the doors, 
skirting, in fact the whole of the woodwork, might be 
finished in white enamel, and the effect would also be 
very good. 

Contrasting Harmonies. — From this single 
example it can readily be seen that contrasting colours 
often give the very best results. A wall painted green 



x6o 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



may look very monotonous, but if a frieze, having some 
bright red used Uberally in it, is used in conjunction, 
there will be a vast difference in the appearance of 
the apartment. 

The following suggestions for different colour 
schemes are by Mr. William Fourniss. 



m 



SUGGESTIONS FOR COLOUR SCHEMES. 

For a Red Wall.— Red may graduate from 
Indian red to what would practically be a warm gray. 
Any colour going with a selected tone or tint needs to 
be modified so as to harmonise with it. If a wall has a 
paper coloured in light red and gold, and it is desirable 
that the woodwork should be red too, it must differ 
from the colour of the wall in tone and in intensity. 

A Crimson Wall may have amber woodwork with 
cream coloured mouldings, or they may be heliotrope 
for contrast, or the woodwork may be white. 

A Scarlet Wall may have light snuff brown, or 
a sage green, for the woodwork, with yellow green 
mouldings, or they may be white. 

A Yellow Red Wall, in which scarlet has been 
tempered with an excess of chrome, will bear a raw 
umber tone of brown for the woodwork, with ivory 
or white mouldings. 

A Pink Toned Wall. — With this the woodwork 
may be a yellowish green, with or without straw 
coloured mouldings, or two shades of citrine, with 
pearl grey for contrast in the mouldings. 

For a Dark Red, inclining to purple, the wood- 
work may be a sage or myrtle green, with amber 
mouldings. 

A Poppy Red. — Grey green, lavender and black 
may be used for this. 

All warm tones and shades of green or gray may 
be used with red,, provided they get their hues by 
contrast with the red. Any blue associated with red 
must be slatey or purple in tone. If the colour of a 



NOTES ON COLOUR HARMONY. 



i6i 



wall-paper is heliotrope, inclined to red, the woodwork 
may be cream. If the heliotrope inclines to yellow, 
straw colour should be adopted. 

Blue. 

A Blue Wall of a Purple ToNE.^With this 
yellowish orange, amber, salmon pink or terra cotta will 
harmonise according to the " value " of the wall colour. 

A Peacock Tone of Blue Wall. — This calls for 
orange red, deep amber, warm brown, cool brown, or 
both. 

A Sapphire Blue Wall. — Chocolate woodwork in 
two tones, with amber mouldings. Pearl grey and 
cream will go with this colour. 

A Wall of an Ultramarine Tone. — Light warm 
grey and cool yellow brown go happily with this. 

A Neutral Blue Wall will unite with citron and 
chocolate, or a warm grey green, or a blue green grey, 
and salmon. 

A Slate Coloured Wall of a Blue Tone. — 
For this there is plum colour and lavender, puce and 
orange to choose from. • 

Yellow. 

This colour ranges from a rich sienna to a lemon 
tone ; from citrine to a cream. 

A Yellow Wall. — Plum colour, slate, brown, or 
citrine may be u.sed with this. 

A Gold Coloured Wall.— The woodwork may 
be in two tones of lavender, with citrine mouldings. 

An Orange Coloured Wall. — The colour for the 
wood may be a purple tone of red, with maroon mould- 
ings, or if Hght mouldings be required, citrine would 
serve. 

A Canary Coloured Wall. — Vellum colour, with 
deep ivory mouldings, may be adopted for the wood- 
work. 

A Deep Terra Cotta Wall. — A selection from 
buff, sage green, Indian red, vermiHon, white and black 



l62 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 





either or any, may be selected, the strong colours in 
the small parts. 

A Primrose Tone of Wall. — Tones of snuff 
brown, medium yellow green, and lavender may be 
selected. 

A Neutral or Drab Wall. — Shades of olive 
green, Venetian red, and lilac go well together. 

Brown. 

This colour is perhaps the best wearing colour for 
woodwork. There are infinite tints and shades, from 
sober to rich, from cool to warm. Blue agrees especially 
with brown. 

Deep brown, light blue, and gold go well together. 

Light Purple Tone of Brown Wall. — The 
woodwork may be yellow red, with cream mouldings. 

A Brown Ingrain Wall. — The woodwork may 
be in two tones, made from indigo blue, with amber 
mouldings. 

A Gold Coloured Brown Wall would unite 
with woodwork of a red tone of purple, with plum 
coloured mouldings, or a warm grey may be used. 

Burnt Sienna Brown Tone of Wall. — With 
this, salmon and myrtle harmonise. 

Green. 

This colour, so extensive in Nature, will agree 
with all colours, provided they are toned to suit each- 
other, warm or cold, neutral or bright, etc. 

An Olive Green Wall will agree with maroon 
woodwork with a crimson lake, straw or pink tone for 
the mouldings. 

A Medium Green Coloured Wall. — If two 
tones of red, a crimson tone and a yellow tone be 
adopted, the mouldings, if desired, may be a salmon 
buff. [f-^.; 

A Grey Green Wall may have a primrose tone 
of woodwork, with a scarlet tone for mouldings. 



NOTES ON COLOUR HARMONY. 



163 



A Moss Green Tone of Wall will associate well 
with citrine woodwork, and salmon coloured panels or 
mouldings. 

A Pea or Leaf Green Wall goes well with a 
chocolate and a lavender. 

Grey. 

This neutral colour agrees with and helps every 
other colour. 

A Warm Gray Wall. — With this the woodwork 
may well be a tawny leather colour, with either buff 
or cream in the mouldings. A quiet red would also 
suit. 

A Silver Grey Wall sympathises with a salmon 
colour, as well as with a deep blue. Should there be 
blue and red in the pattern on the paper, the styles of 
the woodwork could then be a delicate raw umber 
tone of brown. The mouldings the same brown, with 
burnt sienna added to it. The panel may be a cameo 
pink. A snuff coloured brown would also come well. 

A Drab Tone of Wall, having an ornament 
upon it, low in tone, a citrine for instance, would need 
some force in the woodwork. A rich burnt sienna 
brown suggests itself for this, with a reddish brown 
for the mouldings. 

Of course, these schemes of colour can be reversed. 
Should the general tone of the wall-paper be that tone 
suggested here for the woodwork, it takes then the 
colour of the paper. 

Colour Combinations for Doors. 

Excellent results may be obtained in painting 
front and other doors in rich contrasting colours or 
in self-colours, i.e., a dark colour for the frame of 
the door and a tint of the same colour for the panels. 

The following combinations are recommended as 
producing very good effects. They were carried out 



164 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



in doors prepared by Messrs. Lewis Berger and Co., 
Ltd., for some of the conventions of Master House 
Painters and Decorators. 



Frame. 

Yellow, Bronze and 
Golden Ochre. 

Homerton Red. 

Mid. Japan Brown. 

Vienna Lake and 
Pompeian Red 

Mid. Japan Brown, 
(reduced jV). 

Verona Blue. 

Coronation Brown. 

White Japan. 

Deep Japan Hrown 
(reduced). 

Emerald Tint S. 

Purple 

Maroon Bi'own. 

White Japan. 

Cream. 

Hedge Sparrow Egg 
Tmt. 

Japanner's Brown 
Mid. 37. 

Japanner's Brown 
Mid. 

Purple. 

Homerton Red. 
Homerton Green. 
Verona Blue. 



Moulding, 

Carriage Green. 

Carriage Green. 

Maroon Brown. 

Maroon Brown and 
Black. 

Deep Japan Brown. 
Maroon Brown. 



Panel. 

Yellow, Pale Bronze. 
Maroon Brown. 
Deep Japan Brown. 

Coronation Red. 

Mid. Japan Brown. 
Vernon Blue and White- 
Coronation Orange. 



Deep Japan Brown. 

Olive. 

Maroon Brown. 

Homerton Red. 

Gold Lined. 

Green. 

Stone Colour. 

Same Brown Deep 
Shade 

Maroon Brown. 

Pompeian Red 
(reduced.) 

Homerton Red. 

Yellow Bronze Green. 



Berger's Purple. 
Emerald Tint W. 

Homerton Red. 
White Japan. 
White. 

Old Gold. 

Japanner's Brown, 
Mid. ■^7. 

Japanner's Brown, 
deep. 

Pompeian Red, 

permanent. 

Maroon Brown. 

Homerton Green. 



Verona Blue (reduced;. Verona Blue (further 

reduced.) 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS, 165 



CHAPTER XIX. 



The Proportions of Materials, Notes, Etc. 

A little consideration will make it quite clear 
that it is impossible to give exact proportions of 
materials necessary to produce a paint that will suit 
every job. These proportions are determined by 
the condition of the work. A new door of good 
sound pine will be treated differently to one made 
of an inferior wood, which is knotty and somewhat 
sappy. Again, a door that has been exposed to the 
weather for some years, and from which the paint 
has, perhaps, almost wholly departed, will require a 
different mixture to a front door from which the 
accumulation of old paint, extending perhaps, to over 
one hundred years, has been burnt off. Precisely in 
the same way as patent medicines cannot be safely 
used for any and every complaint, so it is impossible 
to have paints that will suit any and every purpose. 
In one case the doctor is consulted and he takes into 
consideration every symptom and every condition and 
acts upon his diagnosis or scrutiny of symptoms. In 
hke manner the decorator takes note of every condition 
of his work, and prepares his paint accordingly. 
Again, iron would not be painted with the same 
mixture as wood. Still, if we cannot give exact pro- 
portions, we can, at least, give some information on 
the subject, which will form a guide and give some 
data for the reader to work upon. These we will jjive 
under separate heads 



i66 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

Priming for Iron.— The usual plan is to use red 
lead mixed with hnseed oil, the proportion required 
being about fourteen pounds of Hnseed oil to every 
hundredweight of lead. The second coat should be 
equal proportions of red and white lead mixed to a 
proper consistency with linseed oil. Sometimes oxide 
of iron paint is used instead of red lead. 

Painting on Stucco.— The priming must contam 
a considerable quantity of oil because of the absorbent 
nature of the stucco, and it should have a big proportion 
also of turpentine. Four gallons of boiled oil to a 
hundredweight of red lead and three quarts of 
turpentine will usually answer. The second coat 
should be an equal mixture of red and white lead 
with a smaller proportion of turpentine and oil. 

Priming for Deal or Pine (inside). —With 
white lead use three-quarter ounces of driers and the 
same quantity of red lead to every pound of lead. Thm 
with three-quarter gallon of raw Hnseed oil to 14 Ib. 

of lead. 

Second Coat (inside).— Use about half an ounce 
of driers and one ounce of red lead to every pound of 
white lead ; 14 lb. of lead will require half gallon 
raw linseed oil and quarter gallon turpentine. 

Second Coat (outside).— Use about one ounce 
of patent driers to every pound of white lead, with the 
addition of about the same quantity of red lead. 

Third Coat.— Use to 14 lb. of lead, quarter 
gallon each of raw Hnseed oil and turpentine and quarter 
pound driers. 

Table of Materials Required. 

The following table is extracted from a more 
elaborate one to be found in the " Painters' Pocket 
Book," by Peter Matthews, pubHshed at 3s. nett by 
John'Heywood, Ltd., Deansgate, Manchester. 

On absorbent surface, such as new plaster and 
stone. Based on the assumption that 10 lb. of white 



if 

1 5' 



ii i- 



PLATE XII. 





SPANISH MAHOGANY. 




GREEN. 




SPANISH MAHOGANY. 




SILVER GREY. 

Examples of " MATSINE " on Painted Surfaces. 



J 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. 167 

lead mixed with driers and thinners will cover 40 
square yards. 



Sq. yd. cwt. 

5 
10 

20 

50 
100 

500 

1000 



White Lead. Patent Driers. 



qr. ib. 

5 
I2J 

25 
13 
26 



lb. 



O 

o 



13 

27 



oz. 
2i 

H 
si 

8| 

H 



Linseed Oil. 
gal. qt. pt. gil. 



I 

O 
I 
I 

o 



of 
3i 

3i 

of 



Turpentine, 
gal. qt. pt. gil. 

1 

3 
¥ 

3* 

2| 
2| 



I 

O 

o 



Table : When 10 lb, of white lead with driers and 
thinners will cover 60 square yards (as on old painted 
work, or after second coat on new work). 



Sq. yd. 


White 
cvi t. qr 


Lead, 
lb. 


oz. 


Patent 
lb. 


Driers, 
oz. 


ga!. 


Linseed Oil. 
qt. pt. 


£il. 


T 

qt. 


urpentine. 
pt. gil. 


5 








i3i 




li 








1 




JL 


10 

20 






I 


10k 

si 




2i 

4f 








^4 




4 

i 


50 
100 






8 
16 


5i 
10^ 


I 


12 
8 




I 


I 



oi 

a 




500 
1000 


I 


2 

I 


27 
26 


5i 


7 
14 


2i 

4* 


I 
--> 


I 
J 


I 

I 


3i 
3 


I 
2 


3f 

1 3l 



Eggshell Gloss. — To every pound of white lead 
add quarter of an ounce of copal varnish and to same 
quantity of gold size with half the quantity of boiled 
oil. These will serve the purpose of binding the 
materials together and causing them to dry. The 
thinners should consist of turpentine used in the 
proportion of about three-quarters of a pint to every 
7 lb. of white lead. 

Oxide of Zinc. — In mixing oxide of zinc it is 
necessary, as already mentioned, to use a special 
drier free from lead. Special zinc driers may be 
purchased ready made. They consist for the most 
part of borate of manganese. 

Outside Woodwork.— To every hundredweight 
(112 lb.) of zinc oxide ground in oil as usually suppHed 
lise 19 lb. of refined boiled hnseed oil, 5I lb. of tur- 
pentine, and 5 lb. of zinc driers. A smaller quantity 
of driers will frequently suffice. 



M 



i68 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

Inside Woodwork. — Use rather more refined 
boiled oil and a little more driers. 

!j#-j These mixtures may be employed in varying 
proportions of oil and driers on stone, plaster and 
iron, and the quantity of turpentine will rarely require 
to be changed. 

PIGMENTS. 
Some Useful Tables. 

PiCxMENTS Ll\BLE TO CHANGE UNDER THE INFLUENCE 

OF Sulphuretted Hydrogen, Air, and Moisture : 

Yellow.— Chronie yellow, mineral yellow, Naples 

yellow. 
White.— Chremnitz white, flake v/hite, pearl white. 
j^ed.—Red lead, purple red, iodine scarlet. 
.(;^gg,;^._Verdigris, Scheele's green, emerald green, 

mountain green. 
^/^g__Prussian blue, Antwerp blue. 
■Orange. — Orange chrome. 

Pigments Little Liable to Change under the 
Influence of Sulphuretted Hydrogen, 
Air and Moisture : 

jYhite.—IAnc white, constant white, tin white. 
7^g(^._Vermilion, red ochre, Indian red, madder 

lakes. 
Yellow.— Yellow ochre, barium chromate, zinc 

chromate, aureolin, raw sienna. 
Qyeen.— Chrome green, cobalt green. 
5^^g._Ultramarine, smalt, Thenard's blue. 
Brown.— Nandyke brown, raw umber, burnt 

umber, manganese brown, sepia. 
Black. Ivory black, lamp black, Indian ink, 

graphite. 
■Orange.— Orange vermilion, burnt sienna. 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. 169 

Pigments Liable to Deterioration when in Con- 
tact WITH White Lead, Chrome or other 
Lead Pigment : 

Yellow. — Yellow orpiment, king's yellow, Indian 
yellow, gamboge. 
■ : Red. — Iodine scarlet, cochineal, carmine. 

Orange. — Golden antimony sulphide, orange orpi- 

ment. 
Green. — Sap green. 
Blue. — Ultramarine. 

Pigments which are Little Affected by Heat, and 

which may be Employed when the 

Material has to Stand Fire : 

While. — lin white, barium white, zinc white. 

Red. — Red ochre, Venetian red, Indian red. 

Yellow. — Naples yellow, antimony yellow. 

Blue. — Smalt and royal b]ue, ultramarine. 

Green. — Chrome green, cobalt green. 

Orange. — Burnt sienna, burnt ochre. 

Brown. — Burnt umber, manganese brown. 

Black. — Graphite, mineral black. 
Colours that may be Used with Lime : 
. White. — Permanent white, i.e., baryta \Nhite, 
gypsum, zinc white. 

Red. — The vermilions, light red, Venetian red, 
Indian red, madder lakes. ^ 

Orange. — Cadmium, orange chrome. Mars orange, 
burnt sienna, burnt Roman ochre, light red. 

Yellow. — Aureolin, cadmium yellow, lemon yellow, 
Naples yellow, Mars' yellow, raw sienna, yellow 
ochre, Roman ochre, transparent gold ochre, 
brown ochre, Indian yehow, Oxford ochre. 
- Green. — Oxide of chromium, transparent oxide of 
chromium, viridian, emerald green, malachite 
green, verdigris, terra verte, cobalt green, 
chrome green. 





PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Blue. — Genuine ultramarine, artificial ultramarine, 

new blue, permanent blue, cobalt blue, 

cerulean blue, smalt. 
Purple. — Purple madder. Mars' violet. 
Brown. — Bone brown, bistre, Prussian brown, 

burnt umber, Vienna brown, Vandyke brown, 

Cologne earth, asphaltum, Cassel earth, 

manganese brown. 
Citrine. — Raw umber, Mars' brown. 
Blacks. — Ivory black, lamp black, blue black, 

charcoal black, cork black, Indian ink, black 

lead, drop black, plumbago. 

Brushes. — We include here some information 
concerning brushes, but may first give a brief description 
of the way in which they are made, taking the firm of 
G. B. Kent and Sons, Ltd., as an example, as the 
author had the pleasure of going over their factory 
some time since. The following is his account written 
for the Decorator's Magazine. 

A superficial observer may be inclined to think 
there is no particular advantage to the painter and 
decorator in possessing a knowledge as to how the tools 
he uses are made. Yet such a knowledge may help 
him considerably in judging as to the quafity of those 
tools, and it will be at once acknowledged that an 
abifity to discriminate in this respect is of considerable 
value. For brushes vary greatly in quality, far more 
so, perhaps, than our readers may imaguie possible. 
Everyone knows that there are good brushes that cost 
more than a trifle, and rubbishy goods, chiefly of foreign 
make, that can be bought for, perhaps, half the amount. 
Probably there is not a reader who does not fully 
understand that it is far better in the end to buy the 
best quality brushes, that is, that it is cheaper to pay 
a higher price, because the work with such brushes 
can be done quicker and better than it can by the 
inferior ones, and also because the superior quality 
lasts much longer. Those things are well understood 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. 



171 



among most painters, and even if some of them will 
use cheap stainers and lose money in consequence, 
they have, at least, learned a lesson of the necessity, 
of using only best quality tools. 

But it is not a comparison between high grade and 
low grade brushes that we now want to make, it is 
rather to direct attention to the difference that exists 
in the actual quality of so-called first class tools of 
different makes. It is this difference that can best 
be understood after inspecting the process of brush- 
making, and it must be acknowledged that adultera- 
tion can be carried on in the manufacture of brushes 
to a considerable extent. Take a common ground 
brush as an example. The actual brush part should 
consist wholly of hog's bristles, for there is nothing yet 
discovered that gives better results. Yet there are on 
the market many brushes marked "pure bristle," 
which really contain more or less a large proportion of 
horsehair or other material which makes a poor 
substitute, but which cannot be easily detected, in 
fact, it is the difficulty of detection which has probably 
given rise to the objectionable adulteration referred to. 

The objection to horsehair in a painter's brush is' 
that it is flabby and without spring, but its presence 
in adulterating brushes can be understood when it is 
said that approximately the price of horsehair is is. gd. 
to 2s. 2d., and bristles 8s. to 9s. per pound. It certainly 
requires an expert to state positively whether horsehair 
is included or not, but there are certain signs that 
with care, will determine the matter, at least to a 
certain extent. The real bristle has its end spHt— 
called a "flag" end— the root end is considerably 
larger and cannot be mistaken. The spring or elasticity 
is another indication of the bristle. The horsehair, 
on the other hand, is the same both ends, and has 
no flag end ; if the suspected bristles be viewed under 
a strong reading glass the difference can be told without 
a great deal of difficulty. 



172 PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 

At the works of Messrs. G. B. Kent and Sons, Ltd., 
the author was shown how suspected brushes sent out 
had been dissected and the various parts divided 
up, and it was surprising to see how much horsehair 
could be included in a brush without giving it any 
out-of-the-way appearance. There were httle piles 
of horsehair of different lengths, while the bristles 
were all sorted into other piles, each of different lengths. 
Photographs of the brushes that have been dissected 
in this way proved of use in showing painters that 
adulteration in brushes is carried on to almost as great 
an extent as it is in paint materials. No adulteration 
whatever in painting brushes is permitted in the 
standard quality of G. B. Kent and Sons, Ltd. 

Certainly the brush department in any brush 
manufactory which is of the most importance is the 
bristle room, and it was to this that the author was 
first taken. There were bristles of many different 
kinds, most of them tied up into neat bundles ready 
to be afterwards dealt with. For instance, Siberian 
Okatka, and perhaps most important to my readers 
because they make the best paint brushes, having an 
excellent spring and being stiff. They are very costly, 
and are rarely used by themselves, nor is it necessary 
because other varieties of bristles may be mixed in, 
and it is this mixing or blending that constitutes so 
important a part in the brush manufacturer's art. 
Indeed, the purchase and blending take years of 
careful study to learn. One class of bristle is intro- 
duced into the mixing to give strength, another straight- 
ness, another solidity, another colour, and it is the 
judicious blending, the knowledge of which is acquired 
only by much experience, which makes a first class 
brush for first class work, and having the requisite 
spring and durabiUty and the band of which will 
not burst. 

The process of dividing the bristles into uniform 
lengths is termed " dragging," a very interesting process 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. 



173 



which requires considerable expertness on the part of 
the operator. A handful of bristles, after being mixed, 
is placed against a gauge, and the operator, grasping 
firmly those bristles which project beyond a mark 
which indicates the required length, withdraws them 
with his thumb and finger and places them aside. The 
whole bundle having been gone over in this way, a 
second dragging to the next mark is made, and so on 
until the bristles are arranged in little piles of uniform 
lengths. 

The operation of " mixing " is also interesting. 
This is done in order to obtain a uniform colour and 
quality in the bristles. First, all the bristles of different 
colours are piled on the top of one another, varying 
considerably in colour in the different layers, from 
top to bottom. Perhaps there will be one layer nearly 
white and another nearly black. If these were all 
mixed up indiscriminately to make a brush, the result 
would be a very patchy appearance that would not be 
hked. The object, therefore, is to have an equal 
admixture of black and white throughout. A workman 
takes in his hand a portion of the bristles from top to 
bottom, cutting through all at once. These he holds 
in his two hands and " jabs " — for the want of a 
better word — through a steel comb which is fixed 
upright before him. This mixes the different coloured 
bristles and at the same time pulls out inferior or 
woolly parts that may have been left in. As each 
handful of bristles is dressed in this way it is laid 
aside, and when the whole is completed, the second 
dressing is gone -through in the same way as the first,. 
the result being that the admixture is perfect, and the 
appearance of any one part of the pile is exactly the 
same as that of the other. It is essential also that all 
the bristles should Ue the same way, and, as in the 
rough an uncertain small proportion of the bristles- 
arrive with their heads the wrong way, to extract 
them, another small comb, termed an " engine," with 




:^Ki-fe^fei<i'3--->-.'-v--:-; :,•--.-.;::,'; K-..- :-- 



174 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



% 



teeth very close together, is used ; the " flag " end of 
the handful is combed over this, and the roots of the 
" turned " hairs catch in the comb. 

It will be unnecessary to describe in detail how 
every brush is mad€, but an ordinary ground brush 
will serve as an example. The actual manufacture is 
not difficult. First, the bristles are carefully weighed 
out so that every brush of the same grade has exactly 
the same quantity of bristle in it as a corresponding 
brush ; great care being taken not to disturb the way 
in which the bristles lie. They must all point one 
way, and naturally they have a certain bend. The 
outside of the brush is usually made of white bristles, 
while the inside is grey and yellow. This is almost a 
universal rule, for although the inside bristles are of 
equal spring to those outside, still trade demands 
white bristles outside and has them. The reader 
will understand that the bristles that are to form the 
ground brash about to be made are lying on the scale, 
these having been weighed they are taken off, the white 
bristles being underneath, so as to form the outside of 
the brush. The workman takes all the bristles care- 
fully, but firmly, in both hands, and turns the bristle 
round his thumb in such a way that the bend of the 
bristles all turn inward towards the centre, and the 
white bristles or " cappings " lie in an even rim round 
the rest, and the " knot " is then tied round with 
string. The knots are then dipped in hot cement 
and kept warm, standing upon a hot plate. 

The next process is " driving," which consists in 
forcing the handle through the bristles, which has been 
previously inserted in its binding, and this tightens 
the brush by compression. 

Varnish brushes, as a rule, are shaped in a manner 
somewhat similar to the method of making artists' 
pencils, that is to say, the wedge shape is produced by 
placing the bristles into a small circular box, the 
bottom of which is concave. Hence, it will be seen 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. 



175 



that the bristles, if even they are all of the same length 
have the necessary chisel edge for a varnish brush. 
After the brush is made, the bristles are thoroughly 
scoured on a stone with soap and water. After the 
brush is finished, the bleaching chambers are reached 
where, by means of sulphurous fumes, the bristles are 
tleached to the required degree of whiteness. 

The Care of Brushes. — However good a brush 
may be it will soon be ruined unless it is properly 
treated when out of use. The following hints will 
suffice as a guide in this respect : — 

Writing Pencils, etc. — Wash in turpentine until 
quite clean, and if they are not to be used for some 
time, dip in olive oil and smooth from heel to point. 

S tip piers. —Wash thoroughly in pure soap and 
hot water, rinsing with cold water. Place point 
■downward to dry. 

Varnish Brushes.— The best method of keeping 
"varnish brushes, in the opinion of the author, is to 
suspend them in the same description of varnish as 
that they are used for. As this is not always possible, 
boiled oil may be used instead. 

Paint Brushes. — Mr. Ernest N. Kent gives the 
iollowing instructions in " Specifications " : — 

Brushes made for Use in Colour should first be 
soaked well in water to swell the bristle in the binding. 
This applies also to whitewash brushes which are 
bound either by wire or leather. 

A Brush after use should be thoroughly cleansed 
out in turps or soap and water. If left in water any 
length of time they are liable to twist, and the bristles 
lose their elasticity. 

A Brush made for Paint should not be used in 
varnish, the spirit of which dissolves the cement 
with which it is set, and loosens the bristles. When a 
ground brush has been well worn down in colour, it 
may, however, be used in varnish. 



176 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



Varnish Brushes when not in use should be sus- 
pended in either varnish or oil, the brush not resting 
on the bristles. No brushes should on any account 
be kept in turpentine. 

Stippling Brushes should be well cleansed and dried 
after use, the bristle being carefully kept from crushing ; 
a box in which they can be sHd, allowing the bristle 
to hang downwards is recommended. 

Should a Brush become quite hard with Paint it 
should be soaked for twenty-four hours in raw linseed 
oil, after which time in hot turpentine. 

The Tintometer. — Many attempts have been 
made to devise an instrument by which records of 
colours can be registered with accuracy. The nearest 
approach to success in this direction is the tintometer, 
which is described as an instrmnent for the analysis 
of accurate measuring and recording of all colours. 
It is an invention of Mr. J. W. Lovibond, of Sahsbury, 
and is largely used not only by colour and dye manu- 
facturers, but in many other industries. By its use 
a colour manufacturer can dispense with keeping a 
sample of every colour he makes. Provided that the 
customer possesses a Tintometer, and the colour 
manufacturer one also, it is the simplest matter for 
an order to be sent simply by numbers which will 
ensure complete accuracy of shades. The instrument 
consists of a double tube, ending in an eye-piece at 
one end, and in equal apertures for viewing the colour 
to be measured, and the glasses which are used as 
measures at the other end. These glasses are coloured 
in various degrees of intensity, and in even gradations 
ranging from almost white to strong colours in red, 
yellow and blue respectively. In the whole 465 
coloured glasses are supplied with the instrument, 
but it is so very rare indeed that so large a number 
is required, and, as a rule forty or fifty glasses or even 
many less will answer all purposes. It will be under- 
stood that the colour which is to be measured or 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS 



177 



recorded is placed on one side of the doul?le tube, on 
the other side is put one, two or three glasses which 
are changed until a perfect match is obtained. A 
note of the numbers of the glasses thus records the 
matched colour. The instrument is a great success, 
and permits of the colour analysis of pigments. 




Fig. 12. 

Fig. 12 shows the arrangement for mea.suring 
colour in opaque objects. The optical instrument 
B fits into the shoe at A, the bottom of whichis com- 
manded by both tubes of one instrument, f Under 
one side at F is placed the opaque substance to be 
measured, and under the other the standard white, 
for reflecting the beam of white light, which is then 
dissected at J by the suitable standard glasses, as 
already described for transparent colours. 

ColouredOil Varnishes. — Spirit varnishes made 
in various colours are familiar enough to decorators, 
but they are not very durable. A series of coloured 
oil varnishes are manufactured by Messrs. Lefranc and 
Cie., of Paris (London office, 27, Fetter Lane, E.G.), 
which are very useful for various purposes. For 
example, they may be used on such woods as bird's eye 
maple, chestnut, etc., with excellent effect., as the 
beautiful lights in the wood show up to advantage 
through the varnish. They are also used for glazing. 



178 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



especially the red colour, which on a ground of bright 
coloured oxide, shows up well and does away with 
the necessity for using fugitive crimson lake. 

Oxides. — The oxide of iron paints which are so 
useful and economical for the use of house painters 
depend to some extent for their durability upon the 
proportion of ferric oxide which they contain. Even 
more important is the fineness of the pigment and the 
colour or tone. The writer has examined some Indian 
reds and a special Turkey red made by the Derby- 
Oxide and Colour Co., Ltd., Rugeley, Staffs, which 
may be taken as typical oxides of a high quality. 

Jelstone. — This is a product of the Alabastine 
Company and is now used by many of the most enter- 
prising tradesmen in place of distemper, as usually 
made with whiting and size. As the obj ect of the Com- 
pany is to compete with whiting and size, they have 
necessarily placed the price low, and this being a 
perfectly white dry powder and only requiring cold 
water to mix (which is free), as against whiting and 
size, which is always purchased with a percentage 
of water which you pay for, it is obviously important 
that our readers should consider this view which the 
Company take. The saving of time and waste as 
compared with the ordinary preparation of distemper, 
and its convenience, also its absence of odour in hot 
weather, also that ordinary colours may be added to 
the white, are points which should be kept in mind. 

DESCRIPTION OF COLOUR PLATES. 

PLATE I. 

This plate, which faces the title page, is prepared 
in order to show the result of adding white to various 
colours in given proportions. All the colours 
shown on this sheet are manufactured by Messrs. 
Lewis Berger and Sons, Ltd., of Homerton, London, 
N.E. The colours are shown pure with tints of the 
same colour side by side, produced first by tinting with 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. 



179 



fifteen parts of white lead and next with thirty parts of 
white lead. The reader is strongly advised to care- 
fully study this sheet, particularly the tints, so that 
he may have well in mind the appearance of the 
different colours when white is added to them. An 
excellent plan would be to compare the self-colours in 
daily use with those shown on this sheet, and then 
to mix the same number of parts of white lead, again 
making a comparison. Most of the colours shown on 
this sheet are referred to under their respective heads. 
On appUcation to Messrs. Lewis Berger and 
Sons, Ltd., a book containing no self-colours and 
tints will be forwarded, free of charge, to readers who 
mention this book in their application. 

PLATE II. 

On this plate are shown the principal grounds used 
in graining. They are given in flat colours so as to 
better indicate the exact tones. It must be said, 
however, that opinion among grainers varies con 
siderably as to the exact shade or hue the ground of 
principal woods should have. Those given on this 
sheet may be taken as average examples, but they may 
be somewhat varied without detriment if a correspond- 
ing variation is made in the graining colour. 

In chapter XIII. will be found instructions for 
producing each of these graining grounds as well as 
the graining colours which should be used over them. 

Eight colours in everyday use are also shown on 
this sheet. 

PLATE III. 

Sixteen examples of different colours of paint are 
shown on this sheet. In each case paint, and not 
printers' ink, has been used in their production, so 
that no difficulty should be experienced in imitating 
them. Instructions for mixing the colours will be 
found under the various heads, such as " Reds," 
" Blues," " Greens," etc. The reader has only to 



i8q 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



turn to the name of the particular colour in order to 
get the correct mixture. 

PLATE IV. 

On this plate are shown thirty of the sixty standard 
colours issued by Messrs. Pinchin, Johnson and Co., 
Ltd., of 23, 24 and 25, Billiter Street, London, E.C., 
as a result of a competition which is described on 
page 22. The thirty additional colours are included 
on Plate V. The reader should remember that while 
these colours do not necessarily accord in certain cases 
with their own ideas of what any particular name may 
be, that they have been selected as a result of the 
concensus of opinion of some three thousand different 
decorators and colour experts. It should also be 
borne in mind that inasmuch as one name is as good 
as another for a colour provided that the name is 
fixed rigidly, that a convenient plan is to adopt Messrs. 
Pinchin, Johnson's standard colour and to work upon 
it as a base. It should also be added that this firm 
have made a practical apphcation of the standard 
colour card by making it the base of a new paint they 
have recently issued under the name of " Minerva 
Paint," which is ready prepared for use. They have 
selected from their standard colour card twenty 
different colours, namely, the following : Lemon 
chrome, middle chrome, orange chrome, signal red, 
carnation red, yellow ochre, raw sienna, burnt sienna, 
light purple brown, mid. purple brown, maroon, burnt 
umber, emerald tint, hght Brunswick green, mid. 
Brunswick green, dark Brunswick green, mid. bronze 
green, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue and black, 
and make "Minerva Paint "with these twenty standard 
colours. Now inasmuch as a painter can very readily 
produce tints by adding white to any of these colours 
and can so obtain a large series of different tints, the 
firm have issued an exceedingly useful colour card 
which gives samples of the twenty colours above 
mentioned and underneath four rows of tints made from 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. i8i 



the same colours, having been reduced with three 
parts, seven parts, fifteen parts, and thirty-one parts 
of white respectively. This colour sheet will be sent 
to any reader of this book who writes to Messrs. 
Pinchin, Johnson and Co. at the address above given. 

PLATE V. 

This plate shows thirty additional colours named 
in the competition referred to in the above description. 

PLATE VL 

This plate is prepared to show the effect of varnish- 
ing a water paint. All of the samples are Hall's 
Sanitary Washable Distemper, manufactured by Messrs. 
Sissons Brothers and Co., Ltd., of Hull, and the 
numbers are appended for the convenience of ordering. 
In chapter XV. will be found a reference to the use of 
water paints and the method of varnishing. The 
varnish may be applied direct to the distemper if 
desired, and in that case it will darken it considerably. 
This is sometimes an advantage as when finishing a 
room in washable distemper it is desired to form a 
varnished dado. H it is wished to varnish the surface 
but retain the colour a coat of size will effect this, as 
shown in the plate. 

PLATE vn. 

Another water paint of considerable merit, but 
of a different character, is shown in various selected 
colours on this plate. It is mixed with hot water 
and gives excellent results, both when used inside and 
outside. The distemper in question is called " Phasan- 
tite," and is manufactured by Messrs. Wilkinson, 
Hey wood and Clark, Ltd., Caledonian Road, London. 

PLATE viii. 
This plate shows sixteen different examples of 
Messrs. Wilkinson, Heywood and Clark's beautiful 
non-poisonous decorators' colours. The advantages 
of using these colours from a sanitary, as well as 
an artistic point of view, are very considerable. Effects 



1 



''' ^-^/iVr AND COLOUR MIXING. 

may be obtained by their „,p ^-ta , 

without very considerabll "' \^'*™" '° "rive a 

materials. I poi^t ?W ^h tt': "?^" "-g °the 

readily grasp i^^the facS ity l^th v l'"' '"'^^^ ™' 

may be obtained by the rHv"" "''^'"''"^ t^t 

Indeed, almost numberts ti Z™ °' ^"*^ ^^^te 

from the complete sTt o /n, "'"^ "^^^ "bt^^inec 

WHkmson, H^yJo:^' a d a^t.r.^T '" «--^' 

book, which the author ha, » J^^ndsome sample 

purchasers of this work on annr"^!'' ™" ""' ^^^ '» 

Caledonian Road, Tw's r^o r " *° ""'" "* 7, 

^-eenot these c.our:-e^uredVSst^at.r 

Th- PLATE IX. 

.t showsln'lt ;;rtf ^rj --^"' study because 
colours, shades or^L^m"T^■■ how forty ^'^^^^nt 

together vanous propo t^nf of^e^d t^' '" "'""^ 
white. These primarv mil " ^"*'' y«="°* --md 

plate •■ 31," .. i ™^^y f°l°r "« marked on the 

colours are made from the we^fr''™'^' ^" *e 
alabastine, wh.ch posseTse grelt 1^7" .'"*^™P«- 
'arge sale among decorator, •?! "'^ '"'''' a very 
producing all the colours sh^, P^Portions for 

g'ven below, and it is urestedT "l ^'"' ^^- ^^^ 
desirous of learning co!fur miv " ' *'* '"^™'^ 
time very profitably by m .^ "%r"" 'P^"'' '^'^ 
the results obtained wouW at ff^ . '" ""'""--s. as 
practical knowledge on the \""'^^*'°" ^r a good 

honse pamter wilf read.ly' ee aCth ^P"^*"^' 
Which IS that instead of ^icZv s "^""^^^er advantage 

he only has to stock foufm'cludF"fr^"'^°'™- 
from these he can so read'l'v oh^ ^^„'^' "">'"=■ ^s 
Before giving the nro. ^. " ^" *''<^ °«hers. 

toproduceeachtfn i raTbrwe"?,?'^' *°"'d "'^ "-^ 
Alabastme is floated fTeXr""^"'^ '"at when 

most walls, but where there 'is T^ '' sufficient on 

tionofthesurfaceas^ermst'uctTo ™'"°"' P«P«^- 
The Alabastme is sullied nd^^^'T'^ "^^^^^"y- 

PP m dry powder, the proper- 



■ 'J'SffiPISSl'- 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. 183 

tions are mixed according to rule, and as shown in the 
list which follows. The actual mixing is effected with 
the dry colours, cold water is then added, and after 
stirring, the material is ready for use. A beautiful 
surface is thus readily produced. 

Referring to the numbers marked against each 
tint on Plate V., the following are the proportions that 
are to be used. A convenient way of measuring the 
material is to use an ordinary tea-cup, but care must 
be taken to pour in the Alabastine hghtly in each case. 
If the cup or measure is knocked on the bench so as 
to cause the material to pack, it will, of course, hold 
more than it would do otherwise, and if it is packed 
in one case and not in another, the colour will not come 
out as intended. The reader is recommended to use a 
tea-cup or similar measure, and to put the material in, 
as far as possible, in each case in the same way. All 
the colours shown on this sheet are stippled, Tthis 
giving a more artistic result than can be obtained by 
brushing out. 

Proportions of Materials for Producing 
Colours shown on Plate IX. 





































U 




31 


B. 


A. 


r— t 




-4-* 


31 


B. 


A. 



U 


'.B 


31 


B. 


A. 





^ 











^ 











^ 









































'^ 


6 


I 


I 


I 


74 





1 


4 


1 

4 


^ 










62 


86 


8 


^ 


I 


* 


^3 


5 


4 


2 


3 


75 


6 


— 


I 




^7 


6 


1 
2 


Ik 


I 


b4 


— 


5 


3 


4 


76 


S 


1 
4 


3 


I 


88 


— 


I 


T 


4 


b5 
66 


H 
4 


I 
2 


Z 


I 


77 
78 




10 





4 
3 


4 


89 
qo 


10 

[O 


1 
2 


I 

4 




by 


4 


b 


- 


3, 


79 


— 


3 


4 


S 


qi 


— 


2 k 


4 


— . 


b8 


— 


I 


— 


I 


80 


— 


2h 


4 


I 


Q2 


— 


[ 


T 


, 


69 


8 


— 


— 


I 


81 


10 


1 
4 


1 
4 


— 


93 


— 


5 


3 


2 


70 


4 


— 




I 


82 


8 


I 


i- 


— 


94 


— 


4 


-7 


I 


71 


b 


— 


i 


loi 


83 


4 


I 


1 


— 


95 


8 




2 


I 


72 


10 


— 


I 


— 


84 


8 


3 


U 


— 


96 


8 


— 


^ 


2 


75 


4 


i 


2 


~ 


85 


-> 


2 


i 




97 
98 


z 


I 


4 

I 


5 
I 



N 



184 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING. 



m 



PLATE X. 

This plate gives twenty-seven different colours of 
Church's Alabastine, including the three (A, B, and 31) 
primary tints shown on Plate IX. The manufacturers 
recommend that shades 5, 6, 7 and 34 are best in one 
coat work on prepared walls, and that two-thirds white 
Alabastine should be added for the first heavy coat. A 
careful study of this plate is also recommended. 

It may be added that Alabastine has many uses in 
addition to that of a distemper. It may be used 
most successfully as a hard filler for bringing work to 
a level surface ; as for example, under white enamel 
work. It is also employed in the following mannei 
to produce varied novel effects, but the ground is pre- 
pared with Alabastine of say, for example, a deep red 
colour similar to 31. Upon this is given a thick coat 
of white or fighter colour, and while the last coat is 
still wet, it is combed with a coarse grainers' comb 
with a wavy motion. This removes some of the white 
and shows the red beneath, giving a very pretty effect. 
The comb may be moved, of course, in any direction, 
the example may be employed so as to produce scollops 
or in a hundred and one different ways which would 
occur to the ingenious reader. Further variety may 
be given by placing the end of a fairly large brush 
against the wet top coat and giving it a twisting motion 
which will form something of the nature of a rosette. 
A thicker variety of the same material suitable for 
modelling and high reliefs is manufactured by the 
same firm and is called " Alabastine-Opalia." 

PLATE XL 

This plate shows forty specimens of typical water 
colours manufactured by Messrs. Reeves and Sons, 
the well known firm of artists' colourmen, whose 
headquarters are at Ashwin Street, Dalston, N. The 
plate will be very useful for reference in connection 
with the chapter on artists' water colours, and readers 



, ui ii i!WW«MJt?ftBW l!ll WilMBWt : 



PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS. 



185 



are advised to compare these water colours with the 
specimens of oil paints which are contained in this 
book. They will then get an accurate idea of the 
difference of appearances between a pigment ground 
in water, and one ground in oil. It should further 
be observed that artists' colours are, as a rule, of a 
much higher grade than house painters' oil colours, 
and are correspondingly more expensive. It will be 
observed that the specimens are produced in such a 
manner that both a thin and a thick wash is given so 
that the difference in appearance can be accurately 
gauged. 

PLATE XII. 

This plate gives four examples of " Matsine," a 
coloured material manufactured by Messrs. Mander 
Brothers, Wolverhampton. It is mentioned under 
the head of " Glazing " on page 96, to which the 
reader is referred. " Matsine " is made in thirteen 
different colours and by varying the grounds literally 
hundreds of different effects may be produced. The 
effect of applying silver grey over a white ground as 
shown at the bottom of this plate is very beautiful 
and most useful in many places where colour would be 
objectionable. 

PLATE XIII. 

This plate shows four more examples of " Matsine " 
above referred to and also under the head of " Glazing " 
on page 96. The imitation of light oak on the plate 
is much truer to Nature than many elaborated examples 
the writer has seen which have probably taken as 
many hours to perform or one might say, days, as 
this has minutes. 



3 » • • 

i « 

3 3 3 3 



3 3 3 a • 

33 3 ai 

• 3 3 J 4 



» a » 
9 •• 



i86 



PAl^T AND COLOUR MIXING. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 



The author's acknowledgements are made to the following 
gentlemen and firms for kind assistance in the preparation of 
this edition : — 
James Newman, 24, Soho Square, London, W. Catalogue of 

Artists' Colours. 

Howard and Jones, Bury Street, E.C. Colour mounters, who 
prepared most of the coloured plates. 

Noel Heaton. Questions re the technicalities of artists' colours. 

J. Barnard, 19, Berners Street, W. Catalogue of artists' 
materials. 

J. W. LoviBOND, Salisbury. Pamphlets relating to Colour 
and the Tintometer and a copy of " An Introduction to the 
Study of Colour Phenomena." 

The Derby-Oxide and Colour Company, Rugeley, Staffs. 
Samples of Oxide Paints. 

Madderton and Company, Ltd., makers of the Cambridge 
artists' colours, Loughton, Essex. Permission to reprint 
from their " Notes for Artists " and for samples of oil and 
water colours with which many of the tests herein recorded 
were made. 

GooDLASS, Wall and Company, I^td., Liverpool. Samples of 
Royal Rubinette, Fast Maroon, Golden Ochre, Fast Red, 
etc. 

Wm. Harland and Sons, varnish and colour manufacturers, 
Merton, Surrey.; : 9a-rr'p]es~ -of -cblov'rs suit-btSls 'iov painting 
motor ca?;s^ ajid; ©ther carrv.agpy. •,. ;, I '• ,. : ; 

Lefrang and- GiE,j i-8y rue^ de Valois, Paris, and 27'. Fetter 
Lane, E>C. .^ ^Sa-niplcs of coloured >'-arrajshbS;., special ichromes, 
etc. ; folding book of colcui- specimens. 



e*«*«»^f<i! 



PLATE Xm. 




LIGHT OAK. 




WALNUT. 




MAHOGANY. 




DARK BROWN. 



Examples of " MATSINE " on Painted Surfaces. 







A CKNOWLEDGMENTS. 



187 



Pilcher's, Ltd., Morgan's Lane, E.C. Colour cards and tint 
books. 

Torrance and Sons, Ltd., Bitton, near BristoL A pestle 
paint mixer. 

Castle Brand Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne. Colour cards. 

Burt, Boulton and Haywood, Ltd., 64, Cannon Street, E.C: 
List of special paints, anti-fouling compositions, etc. 

GoDDARD and Son, Silver Street, Hull. Colourmounters. Plate VI. 
showing distemper plain and varnished. 

Lewis Berger and Son, Ltd., Homerton, N. Plate I. showing 
tints of various colours. 

Pinchin, Johnson and Co., Ltd., 23, Billiter Street, EsC. 
Plates IV. and V., showing sixty standardised colours. 

SissoNs Bros, and Co., Hull. Plate VI., showing specimens of 
Hall's sanitary distemper. 

Alabastine, Ltd., Chuich Street, Lambeth. Plates VII. and 
VIII,, showing specimens of colour in alabastine. 

Wilkinson, Heywood and Clark, Ltd. Plates IX. and X., 
showing their Phasantite and non-poisonous colours. 

Reeves and Son, Ltd., Darwin Street, Dalston, N. Plate XI., 
showing specimens of their artists' water colours. 

Messrs. Mander Bros., Wolverhampton. Plates XII. and 
XIII., specimens of work in " Matsine." 

Werner, Pfleiderer and Perkins, Ltd., Peterborough. 
Catalogue of mixing machinery. 1 

Winsor and Newton, Ltd., 38, Rathbone Place, W. Catalogue 
of artists' colours and materials. 

George Rowney and Co., 10, Percy Street, W. Catalogue of 
artists' colours and materials. 



Major and Co., Ltd., 
" Solignum." 



Hull. Layers of wood stained with 



W. S. Merrikan, Hull. Colour books and cards. 

Alexander, Fergusson and Co., Ltd., 38, McAlpine Street, 
Glasgow. Colour cards and tint books. 

Naylor Brothers, 407, Oxford Street, W. Colour cards. 

John J. Bo water, Spon Lane, West Bromwich. Colour cards. 

Wm. Gardner and Sons, Gloucester. Catalogue of sifting 
and mixing machinery. 

O 



i88 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Alizarin Crimson 35 

Alizarin Green 64 

Alizarin Yellow 54 

Amber 54 

Amber Brown 74 

American Walnut 101, 103 

Antique Oak 101 

Antwerp Blue 47 

Antwerp Crimson 35 

Armenian Red 35 

Artists' Water Colours and How to 

MixThem 132 

Ash ..- 101 

Aureolin 54 

Aurora Yellow 54 

Autumnal Tints 137 

Azure Blue 47 

Backgrounds 138 

Banks, Earthy 137 

Barytes 105 

Begonia 35 

Berlin Blue 47 

Bice 64 

Birch 101,103 

Bird's Eye Maple 102 

Biscuit Colour 55 

Bismark Brown 75 

Bistre , 75 

Bitumen 75 

Black Maroon 36 

Black Pigments 108 

Blue Pigments 108 

Blues 28,161.156 

Blues, and How to Mix Them 47 

Body 118 

Bracken 137 

Bremen Blue 47 

Brick 36 

Bright Scarlet 36 

Bronze Blue 47 

Bronze Green 65, 153 

Brown Ochre 76 

Bronze Yellow 55 

Brown 162 

Brown Madder 36 

Browns, and How to Mix Them — 74 

Brunswick Green 65 

Brunswick Blue 48 

Brushes 173 

Buff 55 

Burnt Carmine and Burnt Lake 36 

Burnt Ochre 37 

Burnt Umber 76 

Burnt Sienna 76 



PAGE 

Cadmium Yellow 55 

Caledonian Brown 76 

Cappagh Brown 76 

Care of Brushes 175 

Carmine 37 

Carminette 37 

Carnation Red 37 

Cassell Earth 76 

Charcoal Gray 84 

Cherry 103 

Chestnut 103 

Chinese Blue 18 

Chinese Orange .' 56 

Chinese Vermilion 37 

Chrome Green 65, 152 

Chronie Yellow 57 

Chromes 155 

Chrominm Oxide ., 66 

Citron Yellow 56 

Claret 37 

Clouds and Distances 138 

Cobalt 48 

Cobalt Green 65 

Cobalt Yellow o6 

Coeruleum 1° 

Cold Water Paints 128 

Cologne Earth 77 

Colour Combinations for Doors — 163 

Colour Schemes. Suggestions for .. 160 

Coloured Oil Varnishes 177 

Coloured Plates, Description of — 178 

Colours Fast to Light 151 

Colours Made with Black Japan . . 93 

Colours or Stainers 17 

Colours. Permanence of 150 

Colours which are fast to Lime 129 

Colours, the Nomenclature of 18 

Coiumon Distemper 127 

Composition of a Paint _1 

Contrasting Harmonies 159 

Cream 56 

Crimson Madder (Permanent) 38 

Crimson Lake 38 

Cyanine Blue 48 

Cyprus Umber 77 

Daffodil Yellow 57 

Dark Oak 101 

Davy's Grey 84 

Deal. Priming for 166 

Deep Cream 57 

Distemper and Whitewash 127 

Distempers and Water Paints 124 

Dragon's Blood 38 

Dutch Pink 78 



INDEX 



189 



PAGE 

Economy of Using Good Colours . . 24 

Ecru 57 

Eggshell Gloss 167 

Emerald Green 66, 153 

FastRed 38 

Fawn Brown 78 

Fence Sign White 128 

Fineness of Grinding 146 

Flesh Colour 39 

Flowers and Fruit 138 

Foliage, Grass and Herbage 139 

Foregrounds 139 

French Blue 49 

French Red 39 

Gamboge 57 

Geranium 39 

Glazi ng 96 

Gold Ochre 57 

<3training Grounds and Graining 

Colouis 100 

Grass 139 

Grays, Warm and Cold 139 

Green Pigments 108 

Greens 30, 162 

Greens and How to Mix Them 64 

Grey 163 

Greys and Grays 83 

■Guignet's Green 67 

Oypsum or Terra Alba 106 

Hooker's Green 68 

Holly Green 68 

How to Imitate Water Colours 135 

How to learn to Mix and Match 

Colours 27 

How to Mix Reds 35 

Hue, Tint and Shade 25 

Indian Pink 39 

Indian Red 39, 154 

Indian Yellow 58 

Indigo 49 

Inside Woodwork 168 

Iron, Priming for 166 

Italian Pink 39 

Italian Lake 58 

Italian Walnut 101 

Ivory 58 

Jelstone 178 

King's Yellow 58 

Knotted Oak 102,103 

Lavender 49 

Leaves and Stems of Flowers 140 

Lcitch Blue 49 

Lemon ( hrome 59 

Lemon Yeilow 59 

Light Blue 49 

Light Oak 102 

liight Oak and Birch 100, 103 

Light Olive Green 68 

Light Red 39 

Light Salmon 40 

Lime Blue 50 

Lime, Colours which are Fast to . . 129 
Linseed Oil, Quantity Required in 

Grinding 109 

Liquid prepared Water Colour 129 



PAGE 

Machinery and Plant used in Paint 

Grinding Ill 

Madder Green 79 

Madder Lake 40 

Mahogany 103 

MahOKany, Dark 100 

Malachite Green 68 

Mander's Yellow 59, 79 

Maple 100 

Marine Blue 50 

Mars' Brown 80 

Mars' Orange 41 

Mars' Red 41 

Mars' Yellow 60 

Matching the Wall-paper 159 

Materials, Proportions of 165 

Mauve 50 

Medium Oak 100 

Methyl Blue 50 

Mineral Gray 86 

Mixing and Matching Coloi;rs 27 

Mixing Paint 10 

Mixing Paints on the Manufactur- 
ing Scale 104 

Moss Green 69 

Mountain Blue 50 

Mountains 140 

Naples Yellow 60 

Navy Blue 50 

Neutral Blue 50 

Neutral Tint 86 

New Blue 51 

New Persian Red 41 

Nomenclature of Colours 18 

Notes on Colour Harmony 158 

Ochres 156 

Oil, Quantity Required in Grinding 109 

Olive 69 

Olive Lake ." 70 

Olive Yellow 60 

Orange 61 

Orange Scarlet 41 

Orange Vermilion 41 

Orpiment 61 

Outside Woodwork 167 

Oxford Ochre 61 

Oxide of Zinc 167 

Oxides 178 

Paint Brushes 175 

Paint Grinding, Raw Materials 

Used in 104 

Paint Mixing 10 

Paint Mixing Machines 12 

Paint, The Composition of a 1 

Paint Straining 15 

Painting on Stucco 166 

Paints and Colours, Mixing on the 

Maniifacturing Scale 104 

Payne's Gray 86 

Peacock Blue 51 

Permanence of Colours 150 

Permanent Blue 51 

Permanent Yellow 61 

Persian Red 42 

Pigment and Thinnci"s 4 

Pigments Liable to Change 168 

Pigments, Quantity of Oil Required 

in Grinding 109 

Pollard Oak 101, 103 

Pompcian Red 42 



igo 



PAINT AND COLOUR MIXING 



m 



PAGE 

Pompeian Yellow 61 

Pink Madder i^ 

Pitch Pine 101 

Prairie Brown 80 

Prepared Paints 118 

Priming for Deal or Pine 166 

Priming for Iron — 166 

Proportions of Materials, Notes, etc. 165 

Prussian Blue 51 

Prussian Green 70 

Purity of the Material 148 

Piirity of Tone 116 

Purple Brown 80 

Purple Lake 42 

Purple Oxide 42 

Quaker Green 71 

Raw Materials Used in Paint 

Grinding 104 

Raw Sienna 81 

Ready Mixed Paints 121 

Red Lead 15o 

RedOchre 42 

Red Pigments 107 

Reds 27,39 

Reds, and How to Mix Them 35 

Rivers 140 

Roads 140 

Roman Ochre . .61, 81 

Rose Carnation 43 

Rose Madder ■ ■ 43 

Rosewood 103 

Rosewood and Dark Mahogany — 102 

Royal Blue 52 

Royal Green 71 

Royal Purple 43 

Sap Green 71 

Satin wood 101 

Scarlet Lake 44 

Scarlet Madder 44 

Scarlet Red 44 

Sea 141 

Shade, Hue and Tint 25 

Shadows 141 

Ships (Hull) 141 

Signal Red 44 

Skies 141 

Sky Blue 52 

Special Thinners 9 

Spreading Capacity or Covering 

Power 147 

Stainers or Coloiirs 17 

Starch Binder 127 

Stipplers 175 

Stone Walls 141 

Straining Paint 15 

Strontium Yellow 62 

Stucco, Painting 166 

Suffleld Greens 72 

Suggestions for Colour Schemes — 160 
Suggestion for Painters in Water 

Colours 137 



PAGE 

Sunlight Red 45 

Sunset and Sunrise 142 

Table of Linseed Oil required in 

Grinding Pigments 109 

Tables of Materials Required 166 

Tables, Some Useful 168 

Terra Rosa 45 

Terre Verte 72 

Testing Colours 143 

Thinners 7 

Thinners and Pigment 4 

Tiut, Hue and Shade 25 

Tinting or Staining Strength 149 

Tintometer 176 

Trees 142 

Turkey Umber 82 

Turpentine 8 

Tuscan Red 45, 154 

Ultramarine 156 

Ultramarine (Artificial) 52 

Ultramarine Ash 53, 87 

Umbers and Siennas 157 

Vandyke Brown 82 

Varnish Brushes 175 

Varnishes, Coloured Oil 177 

Venetian Green 72 

Venetian, Indian and Tuscan Reds 154 

Venetian Red 45 

Vermilion 45, 154 

Verona Brown 82 

Verona Blue 53 

Veronese Green 72 

Viridian 72 

WainscotOak 102.103 

Wall-paper, Matching the 159 

Wall Suction Size 126 

Washable Distemper 128 

Water Colours, How to Imitate — 135 

Water Paints and Distempers 124 

Weather Whitewash 128 

Whitewash and Distemper 127 

Whites and Blacks 88 

Whiting or Paris White 106 

Wine Colour 46 

Writing Pencils 175 

Yellow 161 

Yellows and How to Mix Them .... 54 

Yellow Carmine 46 

Yellow Lake 46, 62 

Yellow Madder 46 

Yellow Ochre 62 

Yellow Pigments 107 

Yellow Ultramarine 63 

Yellows 29 

Zinc Green 73 

Zinc Oxide % 

Zinc Yellow '» 



A D VERTISEMENTS. 



Goodlass' 



A Few of our Specialities. 



Swansdown Enamel. 

Extra Pale French Amber 

Varnish. 
Privet Green in Oil. 
Originators of Fast Reds. 
Golden Ochre in Oil. 
Fast Maroon in Oil. 
Pure Ready Mixed Paints. 



Goodlass, Wall &' Co. 



LTD., 



Colour and Varnish Manufacturers, 



LIVERPOOL. 



• jt«-x:«i»:* i£<i* »>ri 




11. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



,y~y^ 



IMPORTANT TO PAINT 



s 
s 

s 
s 



U COLOUR MIXERS 



It is important in mixing paints that pigments be 
used which do not act adversely on each another. 
White lead cannot be mixed with Ultramarine or 
Cadmium Yellow, Vermilion and several other pigments 
because a chemical re-action takes place. 



Zinc White (Zinc Oxidc) 



may be used with absolute safety with any pigment, as 
it affects none nor is itself affected. .... 
It is important in making tints of colours by adding 
white that the purity of tone be maintained. This can 
only be done by means of ZINC WHITE (Zinc Oxide)^ 
which is of a pure, brilliant white. 



It is important 



that a paint be mixed in such a way that it be durable. 
The reputation of the paint manufacturer who sells the 
paint and the painter who applies it depends upon this 
durability. It has been proved that there is no pigment 
more durable than ZINC OXIDE. It is uninfluenced 
by foul gases, such as sulphuretted hydrogen, resists 
the action of sea air, and may be relied upon for its 
beauty, economy and durability. 



1^ 



The reader of this book is invited to 
send for a pamphlet entitled, 

"A Few Facts Concerning: Non- 
Poisonous Paint — Zinc Oxide ; 
Its Comparative Cost and 
Durability." 



Address, Room 366, 

No. 329, HIGH HOLBORN, 

LONDON, W.C. 



S 



S 



s 

i 
S 
S 
i 
S 
S 
i 



i^^-vx/V-^ 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



111. 



For GRINDING, 5IFTING and MIXING all classes 
of DRY COLOURS, PAINTS, ETC., use 

GARDNER'S patent "RAPID" 

Sifting & Mixing Machines 

Will perfectly blend 1 oz. of any colour with any larger quantity. 





sWl 




RAPID SIFTER. 



RAPID MIXER. 




Fine Powder Colour Dressers, Grinding Mills, etc. \ =«rdnsr;s^^^^,^^ „,^^ 
Catalogues from 

Vm. Gardner E Sons (Gloucester) £t5., 

Nat. Telephone: ENGINEERS, 

Telegrams and Cables: ,— ftLQUCESTEKi 

" Gardner, Oloucester." 



VITROLITE. 



A Paint far superior to White Lead. For all purposes. 
Made in White and Stone Colour. J> J- J- 



MURALINE. 



A Washable Water Paint prepared in a Dry Powder. 
Unsurpassable for beauty of surface and durability. 
Made in all Colours. ^ e^ 



Prices, Patterns, etc., of above and other well known Specialities. 



WALTER CARSON & SONS, Grove Works, Battersea, LONDON, S.W. 



IV. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Jooks r paint ani Colour Trades 



MANUFACTURE OF PAINT. By 

J. Cruickshank Smith. B.Sc. Demy 8vo. 200 

pp. Sixty Illustrations and One Large Diagram. 
Price 7/6 net. 

CHEMISTRY OF PIGMENTS. By 

E.J. Parry, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C., F C.S., and J. 

H._ CosTE, F.I.C., F.C.S. Demy 8vo. 285 pp. 
Price 10/6 net. 

OIL COLOURS AND PRINTING INKS. 

By Louis Edgar Andes. Translated from the 
German. 215 pp. Crown 8vo. 56 Illustrations. 
Price 5/- net. 

TESTING AND VALUATION OF RAW 
MATERIALS USED IN PAINT AND 
COLOUR MANUFACTURE. By M. W. 

Jones, F.C.S. 88 pp. Crown 8 vo. Price 5/- net. 
AH Books post /ree in United Kingdom for 
cash Tvith order. 
Catalogues of Technical Books on Paints, Anidine and 



DICTIONARY OP CHEMICALS AND 
RAW PRODUCTS USED IN THE MANU- 
FACTURE OF PAINTS, COLOURS. VAR- 
NISHES & ALLIED PREPARATIONS. 

By G. H. Hurst, F.C.S. Demy 8vo. 380 pp. 
Price 7/6 net. 

RECIPES FOR THE COLOUR. PAINT, 
VARNISH, OIL, SOAP AND DRYSAL= 
TERY TRADES. Cnmpiled by An Analytical 
Chemist. 3.50 pp. Demy 8vo. Price 7/6 net. 

SIMPLE METHODS FOR TESTING 
PAINTERS' MATERIALS. By A. C. 

Wright, M.A. (Oxen.), B.Sc. (Lend.) Crown 
8vo. 160 pp. Price s/- net. 

STUDENTS' MANUAL OF PAINTS, 
COLOURS, OILS AND VARNISHES. By 

J. FuRNELL. Crown 8vo. 12 Illustrations. 96 
pp. Price 2/6 net, 
Mineral Colours, Varnishes, Oils, etc., sent post free. 



The Weekly Organ of the Paint «& Colour Trade 



The Oil & Colour Trades Journal 

Known as THE OIL & COLOURMAN'S JOURNAL. 

SUBSCRIPTION : United Kingdom 7/6, British Colonies 8/-, Other Countiies 10/-, per year 
_ . post free, including Annual Diary. 

Specimen Copy post free on receipt of trade card. Contains each week the latest trade painting and 

decorating contract news, technical articles, trade reports, etc. 



Publishers : SCOTT, GREENWOOD 

19, LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, E.G. 



d SON, 



FEWSTER'S China Gloss. 

This White Enamel has not yet been surpassed for Colour, Wearing 
and Cheapness. 

FEWSTER'S Permanent Red Paint. 

Has a Wonderfully Strong Body. Is the Fastest Red on the Market. 
Jrtichest m Colour. 

FEWSTER'S Amber Oak Varnish. 

Suitable for Outside or Inside Work. A better Varnish than ordinary 
Oak Varnish, at a moderate cost for high class work. It is more 
durable, and paler than real Amber Varnish. 

FEWSTER'S Turpentine Stains. 

Colours Strong and Permanent, and Quick Drying. May be varnished 
over m 24 hours, and a good workman can improve the wood by 
assistmg the marking in applying the Stain. A Novelty for 
Decorative Work. 



POUR FEW^STER LINES FOR GOOD WORK. 

Write for further particulars to 

THOS. FEWSTER & SON, LTD., 

HULL. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



LEFRANC & COS 

Colours & Varnishes. 

Oil Colours in tubes for Decorators, 
Colours ground in turps, ^ ^ 

Liquid Wood Filler. Driers. ^ 

AMBRO NAPHTA VARNISH the best, most brilliant and durable 
Yarnish for outside work. 

COLOURED OIL YARNlSHESj transparent, durable and permanent 
in the light, for use on Glass, Wood, Metals, Leather, etc., 
suitable for Glazing, Imitation of Woods, etc. 



For Samples apply to Wholesale Office : 

27, FETTER LANE, 

LONDON, 



E,C, 



C olour Measurement 



BY LOVIBOND'S METHOD. 



The TINTOMETER, Ltd., 

Supply Apparatus for determining the Colour 
and Tint of all Materials used in Decor- 
ative Work. 

They make Colour Standards for commercial 
purposes and report on the Colour Composi- 
tion of pigments, paper, etc. 

Catalogues of Apparatus and full particulars forwarded 

on application to : 

Manag:er, The Colour Laboratories, 

SALISBURY. 



■• •;*■.•- - H 



VI. 



A D VERTISEMEN TS 



I^ohles 4r Boare 




Varnish U Japan Manufacturers, 

CORNWALL ROAD, STAMFORD STREET. 

LONDON, S.E. 



Telegrams— "NOBLES, LONDON." 



Telephone— No. 1302 Hop. 



Specialities for Painters & Decorators made by 

FARQUHAR & GILL 

PATINOL (Registered). 

A perfect Enamel Paint in pure White and all Colours. Suitable for coating 
both interior and exterior surfaces, possessing the following qualities : — 

Moderate Cost, Easy Manipulation, Great Opacity, Purity of Colour. 
Fine and Durable Lustre, Hardness to the Touch, Perfect Elasticity 
under varying temperature, and therefore not liable to crack. 



SANATOL. 



A Perfect Water Paint, for walls and ceilings, in paste form, liaving the greatest 
possible power to cover up sub-adjacent surfaces, becoming insoluble in water 
within five days after application, and sufficiently so within 24 hours to permit 
of a second coat being applied without working up the first. In many artistic 
shades, all of which are fast to light and the lime in plaster walls. 

(Registered), PYROL (Patented). 

A Perfect Material for removing old Paint or Varnish. Softens old coatings in 15 
minutes. Absolutely harmless to anything except painted or varnished surfaces. 



North of Scotland Colour Works, Aberdeen, 



Established 1818. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Vll. 



Werner Pf leiderer s Perkins, 

LTD. 

PETERBOROUGH, ENG. 

And 92, Queen Victoria St., LONDON, E.C. 



^^ UNIVERSAL '' KNEADERS 

AND MIXERS For Paint and Putty. 



Special Types for Stiffest Mixings in all Sizes. 

USED BY LARGEST FIRMS. 

(See Pages 114 to 116). 



MAKES A PERFECT DISTEMPER. 

QUEENSGATE 98 BRAND 

(A Speciality for Decorators). 
—THE— 

FINEST PARIS WHITE 



GUARANTEED 



FREE FROM GRIT, PERFECTLY WHITE. 

Write for Prices and Particulars. 

Manufactured by tlie 

QUEENSGATE WHITING Co., Ltd., 

BANKSIDE, 

BEVERLEY. 

National Telephone No. 14. 



Makers of All 

Grades of Whiting 

AND Paris White. 



Telegrams— " Queensgate, Beverley." 



Vlll. 



A D VERTISEMENTS. 



THE . . 



' YiMzxW Decorative Oil Colours 

A SELECTED PALETTE OF 

PURE PIGMENTS, 




Specially prepared for . . 

Art Decorators, 



CoAcb^ Builders, Write rs, 
Sign Painters, (Jc. 

In collapsable Tubes, viz.— 
"LARGE" Tubes (5 x ij) and 

"SMALL" Tubes (5J x i) 

as illustrated. 



THE "MADDERION, 

,:GORATiVE mmim 

^ea palette Of pur^^,^n^ 




liiiiiiSpiiji 

SPECIALLY PREPMEDM 

:_. - |ii|l||tliflfi 

DECORATORS, COACH BtlJlDE 

lERTON&CoaTMiiillS 



EXAMPLES OF PRICES. 

(Detailed Price List sent free on application.) 



Blacks, Browns, Ochres, Reds, 
Siennas, Umbers 

Chrome Greens, Chrome Yel- 
lows, Whites 

Antwerp and Prussian Blues . . 

Veronese Greens, Oxide of 
Chromium 

Carmine and Crimson Lake 
Substitutes (both permanent) 

Rose Madder, Madder Lake, 
etc., etc. 



Each Tube is put up in a separate 
cardboard box. 




iMMlffiQN&C^ljii 



Small Tube (51 X 1). 

Sole ^/a^^r^-MADDERTON & CO., Ltd., Loughton, Essex, England. 

Telegrams: " Madderton, Loughton, Essex." 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



IX. 



popular ^(andbook 

OF HOUSE PAIHTINC, 
DECORATING, VARNISHING 
GRAINING, Etc., 

By HERBERT ARNOLD. 

Price l/~ Paper Cover. 1/3 Olotli. 
Post Free. 

The Book contains the following 
chapters : — 

How to Ee-paint a Room— The Re- 
moval of Paint— Paint Blistering— 
Re-painting in General — Varnishes 
and Varnishing— Colour Mixing- 
Whitewashing — Water Paints and 
their Advantages — Paperhanging— 
How to Select Harmonious Colour- 
ings — Graining — Damp Walls — 
Staining a Floor or other Woodwork 
— Miscellaneous. 



JUST PUBLISHED. 

JOHN M. CLARK'S 

SERIES OP 

ALPHABETS, 

ETC., FOB 

Sign Writers, Decorators, 
Designers, etc. 

Contents — 

Egyptian Capitals & Lower Case. 
Roman ,, ,, 

French ,, , 

Gothic ,, ,, 

English Script ,, 

Italian ,, ,, 

Index Hands, Various Styles 
Transposed Capitals and Lower 

Case. 
Condensed ,, ,, ,, 

Fancy No. 1 ., ,, ,, 

Brush ,, ,) n 

Sloped, Various Styles. 

Two full sized Coloured Plates, 

giving many different ideas for the 

treatment and manipulation of 

letters in various Colourings and 

Shadings. 

Price 1/-; By Post 1/2. 



The Painters' 
Pocket Book. 

By PETER MATTHEWS. 

Prices/-; By Post, 3/2. 

Contains a very large amount of useful, prac- 
tical information in addition to the following. 

1. PAINTERS' PRICES. A com- 
plete list of prices for all kinds of 
Painters' Work, including Plain 
Painting, Paperhanging (Plain and 
Relief), Distempering, Gilding, 
Graining, Sign Writing, etc., etc. 

2. MANY USEFUL TABLES 
which will save much time in cal- 
culating. For example : Tables 
giving Wall Spaces in Yards for 
Different Sized Rooms, Wages 
Tables, Wall Paper Tables, Oil and 
Turpentine Calculator. Table of 
Discounts and Profits, Materials 
Required, etc. 

3. COMPLETE RULES FOR 
PAINTERS' MEASUREMENTS. 
(Note.- These rules, together with 
the prices, form a complete Guide to 
Estimating Painters' Work.) 

4. COLOUR MIXING. Instruc- 
tions for mixing about 400 difierent 
colours, 

5. DEFECTS IN PAINTING 
AND HOW TO REMEDY THEM. 
Damp Walls— Shop Window Sweat- 
ing — Cleaning Discoloured Stone 
Work — Efflorescence on Brick Work 
— Varnish Blooming — Resin in 
Varnish— Loss of Gloss— Blistering 
—Crawling Paint— Tacky Varnish 
Work — Stained Ceilings — Colours 
Fading, etc. 

6. MODERN STYLES OF LET- 
TERING FOR SIGN PAINTERS. 
Six pages. 

7. HOW TO SET OUT WORK, 
and Practical Geometry (illustrated). 

8. SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS 
USED IN CHURCH DECORATION, 
on Flags, in Heraldry, etc., etc. 
(illustrated). 

9. CONCISE DICTIONARY OF 
TERMS used in Painting, Building, 
Architecture, Art, Applied Chemistry, 
etc., etc., v,dth many illustrations 
(70 pages). 



JOHN HAYWARD, LTD., 



DEANSGATE, MANCHESTER, and 
Lamb's Conduit St., LOUDON, W.C. 



X. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 





Facsimile 0/ Original Photo taken by Conrad llm. Schmidt [F. A. Glacscr), at The Athambra, Granada, Spain. 

Sole Manufacturer — 

CONRAD WM. SCHMIDT (F. A. QLAESER), 

Telegrams— "Glaeser, London.' CTD "A TirrXD r^ I i r- 

Telephone-850 East. J I K A 1 F OKU, LODClOn, E. 



, -^■•-u .'--*.--'*--"^^- ^ 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



XI. 



WHAT 



WE 



SAY 



JE LU R E is a perfected JAPAN PAINT, superseding varnish, with remarkable 
spreading.elastic and weather resisting properties. One coat equals two of pamt 
& one of varnish & wears twice as long. 120 colours. Any shade matched. Sanitary. 
Washable. Will not crack,chip,peel,blisterorfade. Saves Ume, labour, varnish & money 



ONE GALLON WILL 
COVER ABOUT 
90 SQUARE YARDS , 



^^;}xmm'/^///////y!m'////m/m 



WHAT CUSTOMERS SAY 



ONE OR MORE FRKSH LETTERS WILL APPEAR EACH TLME. 
TWO COATS WITH VELURE EQUAL FIVE WITHOUT. 

"We are perfectly satisfied with your Velure as a ftnislang ^oatj J« J>" ''ff '"; 

"Julys 1906 " Brandlesome Koail, Elton, Bury. 

WE HAVE HUNDREDS OF UNSOLICITED LETTERS LIKE THIS. 



m 

' USE AT 

Windsor 

Castle. 

Sandringham, 

Osborne House 

Houses of 

Paruiament 
K ew Gardens 

ON THE 

RoyalYachts 
Victoria ^ 
Albert, 
& Osborne, 
Shamrock III. 
Erih Masoahita, 
Josephine, eT9 

AND AT 

LONDON 

MIDDLESEX, 
WESTMINSTER, 
METROPOLITAN, 
ADDCNBROOKES, 
and mar\y other 
HOSPITALS. 
HOTELS, 
MANSIONS. 
vESTAXa 



Telegrams 1 

" Colours, Rugeley." 




BATTY'S ORIGINAL INVENTION. 



-THE- 



LOOSE BOTTOMED PAINT STRAINER. 

This Strainer is very strongly made and will last for years. 
As shown in the drawing, it consists of three parts, easily detach- 
able. The gauze can be easily cleaned by first soaking in soda and 
water. New gauzes are supplied at a ncininal price. Strainers 
supplied from 4^ to 12 inches diameter across the top. 



F.I.IB.IJ., 



Write for particulars and price lists to- 

TOIVE :Bll-TT"5r, 

—DECORA TOR,— 

NORTH VIEW, DRIGHLINGTON, Yorkshire. 



THB- 



A.B.C. Code, 
4t]i Edition Used. 



DERBY OXIDE COLOUR Co., Ltd., 

RUGELEY, Staffordshire, England, 

PAINT AND COLOUR MANUFACTURERS. 



SPECIALITIES- 



INDIAN 

TUSCAN 



^ 



Jewellers' and Glass Rouges. 
Red and Purple Oxides. 



TURKEY' 
VENETIAN 

Crocus, Colcothar, and Colours of all Shades and Qualities. 
Prepared Chalk, Driers, Pumice, Drop Black, etc. 

Inquiries for Samples and Prices will have prompt attention. 



'; ■<».". -■ ».1 



Xll. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



The " PESTLE 



93 




Paint Mixer 

(Patented.) 

PRICE £2. 

Cash with Order. 

Paints made ready for the brush 

in a few moments. „ 
A time and money saver for 
Decorators and others. 



THE 



" Little Giant" is 3J cwts. when com- 
plete. The machine should be of great 
use to those having to mix paint where 
work is being done, and should appeal 
specially to Builders, Shipbuilders and 
Engineers. 



"Little Giant" 

Paint IVIixer. 

Capacity 5 gallons. 

_ The above woodcut shows a useful 
Paint Mixer for hand power called the 
" Little Giant." The advantage of 
this machine is that it can be taken to 
the spot where the paint is required, 
and any quantity up to 5 gallons mixed 
in a few minutes. The drum can be 
removed for distributing the paint by 
pulling down the lever. The size of 
the container is 25 in. X 10 in. and is 
interchangeable. The weight of the 



''WEE McGregor' 

Capacity 2J Gallons. 

This Paint Mixer will be found 
described in this book on page 12 
It possesses all the advantages of 
the " Little Giant " excepting in 
its capacity and the price is cor- 
respondingly reduced. 



TORRANCE 
& Sons, Ltd., 

BITTON, 

Near BRISTOL. 




ADVERTISEMENTS. 



xm. 





Sanitary 
Washable 

Distemper 



IN ALL CASES Tk MOST Sviitablg, 
IN 7\LL WAYS Thc MOST Aftistic. 



The most practical \A/all Covering : easily and 
cheaply applied with a whitewash brush. 
This celebrated Water Paint sets hard and is 
practically impervious to . climatic conditions. 
Made in two qualities, for inside and outside work. 



40 PER CENT. LESS LABOUR THAN OIL PAINT. 

Made in a wide range of §3 Distinct Shades. jt 

Dries like Flatted Paint. — 



"SISCO" STAINERS 

Strongest, colour best, go furthest. For reduction in proportion of 15 IIds. 

of White Lead to r lb. of Stainers. Highest quality and 

light resisting power. 



Manufactured by- 



SISSONS, BROTHERS «S CO., LTD., 



LondonOffice: 199b, Borough High St., 5.E. 



HULL. 



XIV. 



A D VERTISEMENTS. 



We have 
made 

Best British 
Brush es '°' v''ade 

For t30 Years. 

And are still the Leading Firm in the Brush Trade. 

WHY? 



there is 



PRESTIGE & PROFIT 



For the Dealer who sells Kent's Brushes 



I F y^^ don't sell them, write for Catalogues to 



G. B. KENT & SONS, Ltd., 



Established 
A.D. 1777. 



75, Farring:don Road, 

London, ErC. 



pn-^a.M^o^ 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



XV. 



The Decorators' Greatest Profit 

LIES IN USING 

Bcrgcr's Specialities, 



■ Not only in pounds, shillings and pence, bub in reputation as well. 

When you use any of the Berger products, their superior 
quality is at once apparent. And when you figure the cost by 
considering your time, labour, material, and all the various 
incidentals entering into the expense of the job, you will find 
that Berger products are more profitable for you to use. 

Besides, you have the added satisfaction of having done your 
best work and increased your reputation as a skilled craftsman. 



S^fe5. 



Bergej* 




BERGER'S PAINT. Prepared 

" B.-P." is a scientific combination of Pare White Lead, 

Pure Oxide of Zinc, Genuine Linseed Oil, and Pure 

American Spirits of Turpentine. These ingredients are so 

prepared that " B.P." dries with a hard, elastic fiaish of 

unequalled durability. It does not chalk nor flake. 

The pigment is-fio finely ground in the liquids tha*-, a greater amount of oil 

is taken up than in any other paint, and the smoothness, unitormity, and 

spreading capacity of the paint is vastly improved. These results are secured 

by the use of specially constructed machinery of our own design. 

" B.-P." saves time, money and labour. It makes the cumbersome breaking- 
up and staining processes quite unnecessary. " B.-P." is always ready for use, 
always standard in quality and colour, and always uniform in its consistency. 
It is made in fifty-two standard shades, and is packed in convenient packages. 
Send for Shade Card. 



ei 



r 



^ 



'J' 



PERFECTO, The Perfect Varnish. 

PerfectO is an excellent varnish for general purposes. 
No other varnish for similar use has ever been prepared that 
will equal it in point of quality. 

PerfectO is made from the hardest specially selected 
Kauri Gum, well aged, genuine Linseed Oil, pure American 
Spirits of Turpentine, and a drier of special efficiency and 

adaptability. 

Perfect© works easily, spreads evenly and dries properly. It can be used 
ther for inside or outside work with the best results. 

^ ed by water or dampness. It will hold its fine lustre 

.Q. 

}0 on your next varnishing job. You will not be 
it. In fact, you will be pleasantly surprised at its 
rs sold for the same purpose. 




35^ 






BERGER U SONS, Ltd., 

s. Colours and Varnishes, 

tOMERTON, LONDON, N.E. 

la, Copenhagen, Sydney, Wellington, Bombay, New York. 









Illlllllllllllllllllll 



B 





tii